# Department of Physics

Scott Dodelson, Head

Location: Wean Hall 7325

Kunal Ghosh, Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs

Location: Wean Hall 7303

Heather Corcoran, Student Programs Coordinator

Location: Wean Hall 7319

www.cmu.edu/physics

Physics, one of the basic sciences, has its origin in the irrepressible human curiosity to explore and understand the natural world. This fundamental urge to discover has led to the detailed understanding of a remarkable variety of physical phenomena. Our knowledge now encompasses the large-scale movement of galaxies, the minute motions within atoms and nuclei, and the complex structure of the assemblies of molecules that make life possible. The spectacular expansion of our comprehension of the physical world forms an impressive part of the intellectual and cultural heritage of our times. The opportunity to add to this heritage is an important source of motivation for young physicists. The application of discoveries in physics to the solution of complex modern technological problems offers a vast field in which physicists make decisive contributions. The interplay of pure and applied physics has always been fruitful and today ensures many rewarding career opportunities for physics students. The deep understanding of the physical world developed by physics majors prepares them for successin a wide variety of careers well beyond physics, from medicine to all the sciences and engineering.

Carnegie Mellon’s undergraduate curriculum in physics has been carefully designed to provide a firm knowledge of the basic principles of physics, an appreciation of a wide range of physical problems of current interest, and the capacity to formulate and solve new problems. In addition to classwork and problem solving, the curriculum includes studying physical phenomena in the laboratory. Physics students are strongly encouraged to go beyond the formal theoretical and experimental course work and become involved in research projects under the guidance of individual faculty members.

Students may choose from a variety of degree options. The objectives and requirements for each of these options are described below. Each allows considerable latitude in the choice of electives:

- B.S. in Physics
- B.A. in Physics
- B.S. in Physics with Tracks in:
- Applied Physics
- Astrophysics
- Biological Physics
- Chemical Physics
- Computational Physics

- Minor in Physics

Students pursuing a B.S. in Physics, with any track, will take all courses from the Physics, Mathematics, and Technical Core lists, and take an appropriate selection of courses from the Technical, Non-Technical, Physics Breadth, and Qualifying Physics Elective lists. These lists are detailed below.

- Physics Core
- Mathematics Core
- Technical Core
- Technical Electives
- Non-Technical Elective
- Physics Breadth Electives
- Qualifying Physics Electives
- Recommended Electives for Graduate School
- Physics Graduate Courses

Through the judicious choice of elective courses, a double major program combining physics and another discipline can be readily achieved. A minor in physics is also offered for those students who major in other disciplines. The student, with the help of their faculty advisors, can easily build a program that aims at specific career objectives.

The Department maintains an active and wide-ranging program of advising. Beyond aiding in academic planning, the Assistant Head of Undergraduate Affairs can also assist students in finding research work during the academic year, technical jobs and internships for the summer, as well as planning and executing the necessary steps for gaining employment or continuing their studies beyond the bachelor’s degree. Whether students follow a standard curriculum or not, they should consult their academic advisor at least once every semester.

## B.S. in Physics

B.S. degree candidates can choose studies in not only a wide variety of intermediate and advanced topics in physics but also a range of material in other science or engineering fields. The B.S. degree provides a solid foundation for students wishing to go on to graduate work in physics or any of a large number of fields in pure or applied science or engineering, for which a sound grasp of physics and mathematics is essential. This program also provides excellent preparation for careers in teaching, for work in industrial or governmental research and development, or for other employment in business or industry with a significant scientific component.

### Degree Requirements

#### Physics Core:

All physics majors take these courses in physics, which are designed to teach the fundamentals required for any specialty. Many students take the 100-level courses in their first year of study, the 200-level courses in their second year, and the 300-level courses in their third or fourth year.

Units | ||

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-151 | Matter and Interactions I | |

33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | 12 |

or 33-152 | Matter and Interactions II | |

33-104 | Experimental Physics | 9 |

33-201 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium I | 2 |

33-211 | Physics III: Modern Essentials | 10 |

33-231 | Physical Analysis | 10 |

33-202 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium II | 2 |

33-228 | Electronics I | 10 |

33-232 | Mathematical Methods of Physics | 10 |

33-234 | Quantum Physics | 10 |

33-301 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium I | 1 |

33-331 | Physical Mechanics I | 10 |

33-338 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I | 10 |

33-341 | Thermal Physics I | 10 |

33-302 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium II | 1 |

33-340 | Modern Physics Laboratory | 10 |

Total Physics Core Units | 129 |

#### Mathematics Core:

All physics majors take these calculus courses from the Department of Mathematics to support their studies in physics.

Units | ||

21-120 | Differential and Integral Calculus | 10 |

21-122 | Integration and Approximation | 10 |

21-259 | Calculus in Three Dimensions | 9 |

Total Mathematics Core Units | 29 |

#### Technical Core:

All students in the Mellon College of Science take courses in the Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Mathematics, Statistics, or Computer Science to gain the technical breadth necessary for interdisciplinary work. The following three courses have been selected specifically for physics majors to give them the technical breadth they need.

Units | ||

03-121 | Modern Biology ^{1} | 9 |

09-105 | Introduction to Modern Chemistry I ^{2} | 10 |

15-110 | Principles of Computing ^{3} | 10-12 |

or 15-112 | Fundamentals of Programming and Computer Science | |

Total Technical Core Units | 29-31 |

_{[1] If 03-121 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Life Sciences list to fulfill technical breadth requirement A.}

_{[2] If 09-105 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Physical Sciences list to fulfill technical breadth requirement B.}

_{[3] If 15-112 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s STEM Course list to fulfill technical breadth requirement D.}

#### Technical Electives:

Physics majors can choose to increase the breadth or depth of their studies through their choices of Technical Electives. Students may choose these electives individually or may take a pre-set selection of technical electives known as a “track” to focus on a specific subfield of physics. __The five available tracks are detailed below.__

Units | ||

33-xxx | Physics Breadth Elective | 9-12 |

33-xxx | Three Qualifying Physics Electives | 27-37 |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

xx-xxx | Three STEM Electives ^{4} | 27-36 |

Total Technical Electives Units | 72-95 |

_{[4] STEM electives are any courses in MCS (including Physics), SCS, Statistics, CIT, and others explicitly approved by the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

#### Non-Technical Electives:

The Mellon College of Science requires that all students take a variety of non-technical courses to strengthen their understanding of both themselves and the world at large.

Units | ||

99-101 | Computing @ Carnegie Mellon | 3 |

76-101 | Interpretation and Argument | 9 |

38-101 | EUREKA!: Discovery and Its Impact | 6 |

38-110 | ENGAGE in Service | 1 |

38-220 | ENGAGE in the Arts | 2 |

38-230 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Inward | 1 |

38-330 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Outward | 1 |

38-430 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Forward | 1 |

38-302-38-303 | Science and Society - Professional Development and Life Skills | 6 |

or 70-246 | Innovation & Entrepreneurial Mindset | |

xx-xxx | Cultural/Global Understanding Elective ^{5} | 9 |

xx-xxx | Four Non-Technical Electives ^{6} | 36 |

Total Non-Technical Units | 75 |

_{[5] Refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Cultural/Global Understanding list for courses that will fulfill this requirement. Placement credit may not be used.}

_{[6] Refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences section for courses that will fulfill the non-technical electives requirement. Up to 18 units may be fulfilled through placement credit.}

#### Free Electives:

All students must complete a minimum of 360 units to earn a bachelor’s degree in the Mellon College of Science. Students are welcome to take more than the minimum 360 units required.

Units | ||

xx-xxx | Free Electives ^{7} | 1-26 |

Total Free Elective Units | 1-26 |

_{[7] A maximum of 9 units of physical education and/or military science and/or STUCO courses may be taken as free electives.}

### Sample Schedule (No Track)

**BEGINNING FALL 2015 AND BEYOND**

#### First Year

Fall | Units | |

99-101 | Computing @ Carnegie Mellon | 3 |

38-101 | EUREKA!: Discovery and Its Impact | 6 |

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-151 | Matter and Interactions I | |

21-120 | Differential and Integral Calculus | 10 |

xx-xxx | MCS/Physics Technical Core Requirement 1 of 3 | 9-12 |

76-101 | Interpretation and Argument | 9 |

or 76-100 | Reading and Writing in an Academic Context | |

First-Year Fall Units | 49-52 |

Spring | Units | |

33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | 12 |

or 33-152 | Matter and Interactions II | |

33-104 | Experimental Physics | 9 |

21-122 | Integration and Approximation | 10 |

xx-xxx | MCS/Physics Technical Core Requirement 2 of 3 | 9-12 |

76-101 | Interpretation and Argument xx-xxx::Non-Technical elective 1 of 4 | 9 |

First-Year Spring Units | 49-52 |

#### Sophomore Year

Fall | Units | |

33-201 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium I | 2 |

33-211 | Physics III: Modern Essentials | 10 |

33-231 | Physical Analysis | 10 |

21-259 | Calculus in Three Dimensions | 9 |

xx-xxx | MCS/Physics Technical Core Requirement 3 of 3 | 9-12 |

38-110 | ENGAGE in Service | 1 |

38-220 | ENGAGE in the Arts | 2 |

xx-xxx | Cultural/Global Understanding Elective | 9-12 |

Sophomore Fall Units | 52-58 |

Spring | Units | |

38-230 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Inward | 1 |

33-202 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium II | 2 |

33-228 | Electronics I | 10 |

33-232 | Mathematical Methods of Physics | 10 |

33-234 | Quantum Physics | 10 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 1 of 8 | 9-12 |

Sophomore Spring Units | 42-45 |

#### Junior Year

Fall | Units | |

38-330 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Outward | 1 |

33-301 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium I | 1 |

33-331 | Physical Mechanics I | 10 |

33-338 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I | 10 |

33-341 | Thermal Physics I | 10 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 2 of 8 | 9-12 |

Junior Fall Units | 41-44 |

Spring | Units | |

38-302-38-303 | Science and Society - Professional Development and Life Skills | 6 |

or 70-246 | Innovation & Entrepreneurial Mindset | |

33-302 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium II | 1 |

33-340 | Modern Physics Laboratory | 10 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 3 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 4 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Non-Technical Elective 2 of 4 | 9-12 |

Junior Spring Units | 44-53 |

#### Senior Year

Fall | Units | |

38-430 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Forward | 1 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 5 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 6 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Non-Technical Elective 3 of 4 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Free Elective | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Free Elective | 9-12 |

Senior Fall Units | 46-61 |

Spring | Units | |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 7 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Technical Elective 8 of 8 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Non-Technical Elective 4 of 4 | 9-12 |

xx-xxx | Free Elective | 9-12 |

Senior Spring Units | 36-48 |

## B.A. in Physics

The Bachelor of Arts degree in Physics offers a flexible program that allows students to combine the study of Physics with the opportunity to do intensive work in substantive areas such as liberal arts, teaching, business or law. With 82 units of free electives, it is feasible for students to obtain, for example, a double major with a department in the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, the College of Fine Arts, or the Tepper School of Business. It is expected that students will focus their elective courses in a well-defined academic area. Students must meet with the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs and construct an approved plan of study.

The requirements for the B.A. degree are the same as for the B.S. degree, except that 6 of the Physics, Mathematics and Technical Electives in the B.S. program become Free Electives in the BA program. These requirements are listed below.

### Degree Requirements

#### Physics Core:

All physics majors take these courses in physics, which are designed to teach the fundamentals required for any specialty. Many students take the 100-level courses in their first year of study, the 200-level courses in their second year, and the 300-level courses in their third or fourth year.

Units | ||

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-151 | Matter and Interactions I | |

33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | 12 |

or 33-152 | Matter and Interactions II | |

33-104 | Experimental Physics | 9 |

33-201 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium I | 2 |

33-211 | Physics III: Modern Essentials | 10 |

33-231 | Physical Analysis | 10 |

33-202 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium II | 2 |

33-228 | Electronics I | 10 |

33-232 | Mathematical Methods of Physics | 10 |

33-234 | Quantum Physics | 10 |

33-301 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium I | 1 |

33-331 | Physical Mechanics I | 10 |

33-338 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I | 10 |

33-341 | Thermal Physics I | 10 |

33-302 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium II | 1 |

33-340 | Modern Physics Laboratory | 10 |

Total Physics Core Units | 129 |

#### Mathematics Core:

All Physics Majors take these courses from the Department of Mathematics to support their studies in Physics.

Units | ||

21-120 | Differential and Integral Calculus | 10 |

21-122 | Integration and Approximation | 10 |

21-259 | Calculus in Three Dimensions | 9 |

Total Mathematics Core Units | 29 |

#### Technical Core:

All students in the Mellon College of Science take courses in the Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Mathematics, Statistics, or Computer Science to gain the technical breadth necessary for interdisciplinary work. These three courses have been selected specifically for Physics Majors to give them the technical breadth they need

Units | ||

03-121 | Modern Biology ^{8} | 9 |

09-105 | Introduction to Modern Chemistry I ^{9} | 10 |

15-112 | Fundamentals of Programming and Computer Science ^{10} | 10-12 |

or 15-110 | Principles of Computing | |

Total Technical Core Units | 29-31 |

_{[8] If 03-121 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Life Sciences list to fulfill technical breadth requirement A.}

_{[9] If 09-105 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Physical Sciences list to fulfill technical breadth requirement B.}

_{[10] If 15-112 is satisfied through placement credit, students should refer to the Mellon College of Science’s STEM Course list to fulfill technical breadth requirement D.}

#### Technical Electives:

While students pursuing a B.S. in Physics are required to take a minimum of 8 Physics, Mathematics, and STEM electives, students pursuing a B.A. in Physics need only take a minimum of 2 Qualifying Physics Electives.

Units | ||

33-xxx | Two Qualifying Physics Electives | 18-24 |

Total Technical Electives | 18-24 |

#### Non-Technical Electives:

The Mellon College of Science requires that all students take a variety of non-technical courses to strengthen their understanding of both themselves and the world at large. The precise requirements are different for those entering before and after the Fall of 2015.

Units | ||

99-101 | Computing @ Carnegie Mellon | 3 |

76-101 | Interpretation and Argument | 9 |

38-101 | EUREKA!: Discovery and Its Impact | 6 |

38-110 | ENGAGE in Service | 1 |

38-220 | ENGAGE in the Arts | 2 |

38-230 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Inward | 1 |

38-330 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Outward | 1 |

38-302-38-303 | Science and Society - Professional Development and Life Skills | 6 |

or 70-246 | Innovation & Entrepreneurial Mindset | |

38-430 | ENGAGE in Wellness: Looking Forward | 1 |

xx-xxx | Cultural/Global Understanding Elective ^{11} | 9 |

xx-xxx | Four Non-Technical Electives ^{12} | 36 |

Total Non-Technical Elective Units | 75 |

_{[11] Refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Cultural/Global Understanding list for courses that will fulfill this requirement. Placement credit may not be used.}

_{[12] Refer to the Mellon College of Science’s Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences section for courses that will fulfill the non-technical electives requirement. Up to 18 units may be fulfilled through placement credit.}

#### Free Electives:

All students must complete a minimum of 360 units to earn a bachelor’s degree in the Mellon College of Science. Students are welcome to take more than the minimum 360 units required. The B.A. in Physics replaces 6 Technical Electives with Free Electives, compared to the B.S. in Physics.

Units | ||

xx-xxx | Free Electives ^{13} | 72-80 |

Tota Free Electives | 72-80 |

_{[13] A maximum of 9 units of physical education and/or military science and/or StuCo courses may be taken as free electives.}

## Physics Electives

#### Physics Breadth Electives

Students pursuing a B.S. in Physics must take at least one course from the Physics Breadth Elective list to gain experience in a subfield of physics. Some tracks have this course prescribed, while others allow free choice from this list. All of these courses may also be taken as Qualifying Physics Electives, but they may not fulfill both requirements simultaneously. Certain courses are offered only in alternate years, as indicated.

Units | ||

33-224 | Stars, Galaxies and the Universe | 9 |

33-353 | Intermediate Optics (Alt. Fall - F20, F22) | 12 |

33-355 | Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Alt. Fall - F19, F21) | 9 |

33-441 | Introduction to BioPhysics | 10 |

33-444 | Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics | 9 |

33-448 | Introduction to Solid State Physics | 9 |

33-466 | Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology | 9 |

33-467 | Astrophysics of Stars and the Galaxy | 9 |

33-650 | General Relativity | 9 |

##### Total Physics Breadth Elective Units9-12

#### Qualifying Physics Electives

Students pursuing a B.S. in Physics must take at least three courses totaling at least 27 units from the Qualifying Physics Elective list, not including the 100-level courses. Some tracks have these courses prescribed, while others allow free choice from this list, allowing students to choose between broad and in-depth study. Students pursuing a B.A. in Physics must take at least two courses totaling at least 18 units from this list. Students pursuing a Minor in Physics must take at least three courses totaling at least 27 units from this list or non-prescribed courses from the Physics Core list. While all courses on the Physics Breadth Elective list are also on the Qualifying Physics Elective list, a course may not fulfill both requirements simultaneously. Certain courses are offered only in alternate years, as indicated.

33-114 | Physics of Musical Sound (B.A. and Minor only) ^{14} | 9 |

33-120 | Science and Science Fiction (B.A. and Minor only) ^{14} | 9 |

33-224 | Stars, Galaxies and the Universe | 9 |

33-241 | Introduction to Computational Physics | 9 |

33-332 | Physical Mechanics II | 10 |

33-339 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism II | 10 |

33-342 | Thermal Physics II | 10 |

33-350 | Undergraduate Research ^{15} | Var. |

33-353 | Intermediate Optics (Alt. Fall - F18, F20) | 12 |

33-355 | Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Alt. Fall - F17, F19) | 9 |

33-398 | Special Topics | 9 |

33-441 | Introduction to BioPhysics | 10 |

33-444 | Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics | 9 |

33-445 | Advanced Quantum Physics I | 9 |

33-446 | Advanced Quantum Physics II | 9 |

33-448 | Introduction to Solid State Physics | 9 |

33-451 | Senior Research ^{15} | Var. |

33-456 | Advanced Computational Physics | 9 |

33-466 | Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology | 9 |

33-467 | Astrophysics of Stars and the Galaxy | 9 |

33-499 | Supervised Reading ^{15} | Var. |

33-650 | General Relativity | 9 |

33-7xx | Physics Graduate Level Courses (see list below) |

##### Total Qualifying Physics Electives Units27-37

_{[14] Only one of these two courses (33-114 and 33-120) may be used for the B.A.}

_{[15] Only one of these three courses (33-350, 33-451, and 33-499) of at least 9 units may be used as a Qualifying Physics Elective. Any exceptions must be approved by the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

#### Qualifying Physics Electives Recommended for Graduate School

Students planning to undertake graduate studies in physics are strongly advised to take the following courses, which count as Qualifying Physics Electives and STEM Electives.

Units | ||

33-332 | Physical Mechanics II | 10 |

33-339 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism II | 10 |

33-445 | Advanced Quantum Physics I | 9 |

33-446 | Advanced Quantum Physics II | 9 |

##### Qualifying Physics Electives Recommended for Graduate Schoolin Physics

#### Physics Graduate Courses

These courses are intended for graduate students in physics, but may be taken by advanced undergraduates as Qualifying Physics or STEM Electives.

Units | ||

33-755 | Quantum Mechanics I | 12 |

33-756 | Quantum Mechanics II | 12 |

33-759 | Introduction to Mathematical Physics I | 12 |

33-761 | Classical Electrodynamics I | 12 |

33-762 | Classical Electrodynamics II | 12 |

33-765 | Statistical Mechanics | 12 |

33-767 | Biophysics: From Basic Concepts to Current Research | 12 |

33-769 | Quantum Mechanics III: Many Body and Relativistic Systems | 12 |

33-770 | Field Theory I | 12 |

33-771 | Field Theory II | 12 |

33-777 | Introductory Astrophysics | 12 |

33-779 | Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics | 12 |

33-780 | Nuclear and Particle Physics II | 12 |

33-783 | Solid State Physics | 12 |

##### Physics Graduate Course UnitsOptional

## Tracks for B.S. in Physics

Students seeking a B.S. in Physics may choose from 5 different Physics tracks, or opt to pursue no track. Each of these tracks fulfills the Technical Electives of the B.S. in Physics. The available tracks are:

- Applied Physics
- Astrophysics
- Biological Physics
- Chemical Physics
- Computational Physics

The track descriptions and requirements are listed below.

### No Track

Physics students wanting maximum freedom can opt not to select a track. The required Technical Electives are those described in the B.S. in Physics section above, and are reprinted below.

Units | ||

33-xxx | Physics Breadth Elective | 9-12 |

33-xxx | Three Qualifying Physics Electives | 27-37 |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

xx-xxx | Three STEM Electives ^{16} | 27-36 |

Total Technical Elective Units | 72-95 |

_{[16] STEM electives are any courses in MCS (including Physics), SCS, Statistics, CIT, and others explicitly approved by the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

### Applied Track

The B.S. in Physics/Applied Physics Track is designed primarily for students who want to prepare for a career path that takes advantage of the diverse and expanding opportunities for employment in industrial and government laboratories with a B.S. degree. The program provides a solid foundation in the concepts of physics, as well as giving the student the experience and understanding of the application of these concepts. The track is intended to enhance computing and laboratory skills, and to introduce the application of physics to those subjects of particular interest to the student. Since the possible subject areas for study are so varied, the track will be tailored to each student’s needs within the framework described below.

Units | ||

33-448 | Introduction to Solid State Physics | 9 |

xx-xxx | Computational Science Course ^{17} | 9-12 |

21-2xx | Four Applied Physics/Laboratory Electives ^{17} | 36-48 |

33-350 | Undergraduate Research ^{15} | 9-15 |

or 33-451 | Senior Research | |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

Total Applied Track Elective Units | 72-94 |

_{[17] The elective courses and research topic are decided after consultation with, and approval by, the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

### Astrophysics Track

The B.S. in Physics/Astrophysics Track provides an option for those Physics majors who either want to specialize in this subfield or plan careers in astronomy or astrophysics. Career paths may include postgraduate training in astronomy or astrophysics or proceeding directly to jobs in these fields. The program provides a thorough foundation in the core physics program with electives concentrating in astrophysics.

Units | ||

33-224 | Stars, Galaxies and the Universe | 9 |

33-466 | Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology | 9 |

33-467 | Astrophysics of Stars and the Galaxy | 9 |

33-350 | Undergraduate Research ^{18} | 9-15 |

or 33-451 | Senior Research | |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

xx-xxx | Three STEM Electives | 27-36 |

Total Astrophysics Track Elective Units | 72-88 |

_{[18] The research topic must be approved by the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

### Biological Physics Track

The B.S. in Physics/Biological Physics Track combines a rigorous foundation in undergraduate physics with courses in Biological Physics and Chemistry. It is particularly suitable for students preparing for post-baccalaureate careers in the expanding areas of biological and medical physics or for graduate study in biophysics. The program is sufficiently flexible that it can be readily adapted to the requirements of individual students. The student will first meet with the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs to discuss interests and career goals and then choose electives that fulfill the requirements of the track.

The Biological Physics Track is excellent preparation for Medical School. All courses suggested for medical school applicants can be completed within this track. Students interested in both the Biological Physics Track and the pre-medical program should consult with both the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs in the Physics Department and the Director of the Health Professions Program for help in planning their programs.

__Program optimized for Biological Physical studies:__

Units | ||

33-441 | Introduction to BioPhysics | 9-10 |

or 03-439 | Introduction to Biophysics | |

33-xxx | One Qualifying Physics Elective | 9-12 |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

03-231 | Honors Biochemistry | 9 |

09-217 | Organic Chemistry I | 9 |

09-218 | Organic Chemistry II | 9 |

03-xxx | Two Biological Sciences Electives ^{19} | 18 |

Total Biological Physics Track Elective Units | 72-77 |

_{[19] The elective courses in Biological Sciences are decided after consultation with, and approval by, the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

__Program optimized for Medical School preparation:__

Units | ||

03-121 | Modern Biology | 9 |

or 03-151 | Honors Modern Biology | |

42-202 | Physiology | 9 |

03-124 | Modern Biology Laboratory | 9 |

or 03-206 | Biomedical Engineering Laboratory | |

or 03-343 | Experimental Techniques in Molecular Biology | |

09-105 | Introduction to Modern Chemistry I | 10 |

or 09-107 | Honors Chemistry: Fundamentals, Concepts and Applications | |

09-106 | Modern Chemistry II | 10 |

or 09-221 | Laboratory I: Introduction to Chemical Analysis | |

09-207 | Techniques in Quantitative Analysis | 9 |

or 09-221 | Laboratory I: Introduction to Chemical Analysis | |

09-217 | Organic Chemistry I | 9 |

or 09-219 | Modern Organic Chemistry | |

09-218 | Organic Chemistry II | 9 |

or 09-220 | Modern Organic Chemistry II | |

09-208 | Techniques for Organic Synthesis and Analysis | 9 |

or 09-222 | Laboratory II: Organic Synthesis and Analysis | |

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-141 | Physics I for Engineering Students | |

33-122 | Physics II for Biological Sciences and Chemistry Students | 9 |

or 33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | |

33-100 | Basic Experimental Physics | 6 |

03-231 | Honors Biochemistry | 9 |

or 03-232 | Biochemistry I | |

21-111 | Differential Calculus | 10 |

or 21-120 | Differential and Integral Calculus | |

21-112 | Integral Calculus (A semester of statistics may substitute for a semester of calculus at many medical schools.) ^{14} | 10 |

or 21-122 | Integration and Approximation | |

or 21-124 | Calculus II for Biologists and Chemists | |

36-200 | Reasoning with Data | 9 |

or 36-202 | Statistics & Data Science Methods | |

or 36-247 | Statistics for Lab Sciences | |

76-101 | Interpretation and Argument | 9 |

76-xxx | English II Elective | 9 |

85-xxx | Psychology Elective ^{(Intro to Psychology, Social Psychology)} | 9 |

xx-xxx | Intro to Sociology ^{(not offered at CMU)} | 9 |

Total Biological Physics Track Elective Units | 184 |

### Chemical Physics Track

The B.S. in Physics/Chemical Physics Track is designed for students wishing to have a strong grounding in physics along with a specialization in physical chemistry and/or chemical physics. It is particularly suitable for those students planning on graduate studies in physics with an emphasis on chemical physics or chemistry. The program is sufficiently flexible that it can be readily adapted to the requirements of individual students. The student will first meet with the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs to discuss interests and career goals and then choose electives that fulfill the requirements of the track.

Units | ||

33-xxx | One Physics Breadth Elective | 9-12 |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

09-106 | Modern Chemistry II | 10 |

09-344 | Physical Chemistry (Quantum): Microscopic Principles of Physical Chemistry | 9 |

09-345 | Physical Chemistry (Thermo): Macroscopic Principles of Physical Chemistry | 9 |

09-xxx | Three Chemistry Electives ^{20} | 27 |

Total Chemical Physics Track Elective Units | 73-77 |

_{[20] The elective courses in Chemistry are decided after consultation with, and approval by, the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs.}

### Computational Physics Track

The B.S. in Physics/Computational Physics Track is intended to fill the increasing demand for physics graduates who are skilled in computational and numerical techniques which are used in the analysis of physical problems and in subjects ranging from control and real-time programming to software engineering and compiler and operating systems design. The degree provides the student with a rigorous grounding in physics as well as in the foundations and practice of computer use as applied to scientific problems. Work is done on machines ranging from high-level workstations through supercomputers.

Units | ||

33-241 | Introduction to Computational Physics | 9 |

33-456 | Advanced Computational Physics | 9 |

33-xxx | One Physics Breadth Elective | 9-12 |

33-xxx | One Qualifying Physics Elective | 9-12 |

21-127 | Concepts of Mathematics | 10 |

21-369 | Numerical Methods | 12 |

15-122 | Principles of Imperative Computation ^{21} | 10 |

15-150 | Principles of Functional Programming ^{21} | 10 |

Total Computational Physics Track Elective Units | 78-84 |

[21] The student must check with the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs to confirm that these are the latest required Computer Science courses for this track.

## Additional Major or Dual Degree in Physics

Physics may be taken as an additional major (also known as a “double major”) or as a second degree, with another department granting the primary degree. The rules of the Physics Department for these two options are distinct, as discussed below.

#### Additional Major

In order to receive an Additional Major in Physics, with another department granting the primary degree — with a B.S. or B.A., alone or with any track — all requirements of the Physics degree and the particular physics track, as listed in the previous sections, must be fulfilled except:

- No STEM Electives are required
- No Non-Technical Electives are required
- 03-121 Modern Biology is not required
- 09-105 Introduction to Modern Chemistry I is not required
- No Free Electives are required

The full requirements are described below:

#### Physics Core:

All physics majors take these courses in physics, which are designed to teach the fundamentals required for any specialty. Many students take the 100-level courses in their first year of study, the 200-level courses in their second year, and the 300-level courses in their third or fourth year.

Units | ||

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-151 | Matter and Interactions I | |

33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | 12 |

or 33-152 | Matter and Interactions II | |

33-104 | Experimental Physics | 9 |

33-201 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium I | 2 |

33-211 | Physics III: Modern Essentials | 10 |

33-231 | Physical Analysis | 10 |

33-202 | Physics Sophomore Colloquium II | 2 |

33-228 | Electronics I | 10 |

33-232 | Mathematical Methods of Physics | 10 |

33-234 | Quantum Physics | 10 |

33-301 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium I | 1 |

33-331 | Physical Mechanics I | 10 |

33-338 | Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I | 10 |

33-341 | Thermal Physics I | 10 |

33-302 | Physics Upperclass Colloquium II | 1 |

33-340 | Modern Physics Laboratory | 10 |

Total Physics Core Units | 129 |

#### Mathematics Core:

All physics majors take these calculus courses from the Department of Mathematics to support their studies in physics.

Units | ||

21-120 | Differential and Integral Calculus | 10 |

21-122 | Integration and Approximation | 10 |

21-259 | Calculus in Three Dimensions | 9 |

Total Mathematics Core Units | 29 |

#### Technical Core for an Additional Major:

Students pursuing an additional major in physics do not need to fulfill the full Technical Core required by the Mellon College of Science, but are still required to take either 15-110 or 15-112 (or an equivalent course as pre-approved by the Associate Dean of the Mellon College of Science).

Units | ||

15-110 | Principles of Computing | 10-12 |

or 15-112 | Fundamentals of Programming and Computer Science | |

Total Technical Core Units | 10-12 |

#### Technical Electives for an Additional Major:

Students pursuing an additional major in physics must take the Physics Electives and Mathematics Elective required of physics as the primary major, but do not need to take the STEM electives. Students may choose these electives individually, but are encouraged to consider the Physics Tracks described in the B.S. in Physics section as sets of courses that are designed to support specific career goals.

Units | ||

33-xxx | Physics Breadth Elective | 9-12 |

33-xxx | 3 Qualifying Physics Electives | 27-37 |

21-2xx | Mathematics Elective | 9-10 |

Total Technical Electives | 45-59 |

#### Dual Degree

In order to receive a Dual Degree in another subject and Physics, all requirements of the Physics degree must be fulfilled. Students may choose to complete the B.A. or the B.S. in Physics, with or without a track. Students must complete both the technical and non-technical requirements, and should consult with the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs for questions about double counting. The number of units required is 90 more than the total units required by the department requiring the fewer total units. Since Physics requires 360 units, the lowest possible minimum for a Dual Degree with Physics is 450 units.

## Minor in Physics

The Minor in Physics is designed to provide a solid foundation in physics at the introductory level, followed by elective courses which will familiarize the student with areas of modern physics, and the concepts and techniques employed therein. The physics minor requires seven courses of at least 9 units each, of which four are required and three are electives.

The Minor is open to all students in the university, but students with non-calculus-based majors should be aware of the mathematics requirements for many physics courses (21-120, 21-122, and 21-259).

Units | ||

33-121 | Physics I for Science Students | 12 |

or 33-141 | Physics I for Engineering Students | |

or 33-151 | Matter and Interactions I | |

33-122 | Physics II for Biological Sciences and Chemistry Students | 12 |

or 33-142 | Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students | |

or 33-152 | Matter and Interactions II | |

33-104 | Experimental Physics | 9 |

33-211 | Physics III: Modern Essentials | 10 |

33-xxx | Three Qualifying Physics Electives or Physics Core Electives ^{22} | 27-37 |

Total Physics Minor Units | 70-80 |

_{[22] The physics electives are decided after consultation with, and approval by, the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs. Students may take courses from the Qualifying Physics List or additional courses from the Physics Core list, such as Quantum Physics or Electronics I.}

## Course Descriptions

##### About Course Numbers:

*Each Carnegie Mellon course number begins with a two-digit prefix that designates the department offering the course (i.e., 76-xxx courses are offered by the Department of English). Although each department maintains its own course numbering practices, typically, the first digit after the prefix indicates the class level: xx-1xx courses are freshmen-level, xx-2xx courses are sophomore level, etc. Depending on the department, xx-6xx courses may be either undergraduate senior-level or graduate-level, and xx-7xx courses and higher are graduate-level. Consult the Schedule of Classes each semester for course offerings and for any necessary pre-requisites or co-requisites.*

- 33-100 Basic Experimental Physics
- All Semesters: 6 units

This course provides students with a basic introduction to experimental physics. The content of the course and the particular experiments to be carried out are chosen to be especially useful for students who intend to work in the health sciences. Specific topics will range from mechanics to nuclear and atomic physics. This course is specifically geared toward pre-health students.

- 33-101 First Year Seminar
- Fall

Various seminars are offered that introduce first-year students to current topics of modern physics. These are mini courses that meet for half a semester. In the past, seminar topics have included: Science and Science Fiction, Astrophysics, Black Holes, Cosmology and Supernovae, Elementary Particles, and The Building Blocks of Matter. These seminars are open only to MCS first year students.

- 33-104 Experimental Physics
- All Semesters: 9 units

This course provides first year students and sophomores with an introduction to the methods of experimental physics. Particular emphasis is placed on three aspects of experimentation: laboratory technique, including both the execution and the documentation of an experiment; data analysis, including the treatment of statistical and systematic errors and computer-aided analysis of experimental data; and written communication of experimental procedures and results. The concepts and skills for measurement and data analysis are acquired gradually through a series of experiments covering a range of topics from mechanics to nuclear and atomic physics.

- 33-106 Physics I for Engineering Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This is a first semester, calculus-based introductory physics course. Basic principles of mechanics and thermodynamics are developed. Topics include vectors, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, equilibrium, mass, Newton's laws, gravitation, work, energy, momentum, impulse, temperature, heat, equations of state, thermodynamic processes, heat engines, refrigerators, first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the kinetic theory of gases.

- 33-107 Physics II for Engineering Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This is the second half of a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics sequence for engineering students. The course covers waves, including standing and travelling waves, superposition, beats, reflection, interference, electricity, including electrostatics and electric fields, Gauss' law, electric potential, and simple circuits, magnetism, including magnetic forces, magnetic fields, induction and electromagnetic radiation.

Prerequisites: 33-106 and 21-120

- 33-111 Physics I for Science Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This calculus based course combines the basic principles of mechanics with some quantum physics and relativity to explain nature on both a microscopic and macroscopic scale. The course will build models to describe the universe based on a small number of fundamental physics principles. Some simple computer modeling will be done to develop insight into the solving of problems using Newton's laws. Topics covered will include vectors, momentum, force, gravitation, oscillations, energy, quantum physics, center of mass motion, angular momentum, statistical physics, and the laws of thermodynamics. No computer experience is needed.

- 33-112 Physics II for Science Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This is the second semester course that follows 33-111. Electricity and magnetism is developed, including the following topics: Coulomb's law, polarization, electric field, electric potential, DC circuits, magnetic field and force, magnetic induction, and the origins of electromagnetic waves.

Prerequisites: 33-111 and 21-120

- 33-114 Physics of Musical Sound
- Spring: 9 units

An introduction to the physics and psychophysics of musical sound. Elementary physics of vibrating systems. Propagation of sound: traveling waves, reflection, and diffraction. Addition of waves: interference and beats. Anatomy of the ear and the perception of sound: loudness, pitch, and timbre. Standing waves and natural modes. Qualitative description of general periodic systems by Fourier analysis: the harmonic series and complex musical tones. The acoustics of musical instruments including percussion instruments, such as drums, bars, and struck and plucked strings; and instruments exhibiting self-sustained oscillations, including bowed strings, blown pipes, reeds, brasses, and singing. Intervals and consonance, musical scales, tuning and temperament. Basic room and auditorium acoustics. There are no formal prerequisites, but an ability to read music and having some previous musical experience will be very useful.

- 33-115 Physics for Future Presidents
- Fall: 9 units

Countless topics of social and political importance are intimately related to science in general and physics in particular. Examples include energy production, global warming, radioactivity, terrorism, and space travel. This course aims to provide key bits of knowledge based on which such issues can be discussed in a meaningful way, i.e., on the level of arguments and not just vague beliefs. We will cover an unusually wide range of topics, including energy, heat, gravity, atoms, radioactivity, chain reactions, electricity, magnetism, waves, light, weather, and climate. No calculus or algebra will be required. The course is open for all students at CMU.

- 33-120 Science and Science Fiction
- Summer: 9 units

We will view and critique the science content in a selection of science fiction films, spanning more than 100 years of cinematic history, and from sci-fi TV shows from the past 50+ years. Guided by selected readings from current scientific literature, and aided by order-of-magnitude estimates and careful calculations, we will ponder whether the films are showing things which may fall into one of the following categories: Science fiction at the time of production, but currently possible, due to recent breakthroughs. Possible, in principle, but beyond our current technology. Impossible by any science we know. Topics to be covered include the future of the technological society, the physics of Star Trek, the nature of space and time, extraterrestrial intelligence, robotics and artificial intelligence, biotechnology and more. Success of this course will depend upon class participation. Students will be expected to contribute to discussion of assigned readings and problems, and to give brief presentations in class on assigned films.

- 33-121 Physics I for Science Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This calculus-based course combines the basic principles of mechanics with some quantum physics and relativity to explain nature on both a microscopic and macroscopic scale. The course will build models to describe the universe based on a small number of fundamental physics principles. Some simple computer modeling will be done to develop insight into the solving of problems using Newton's laws. Topics covered will include vectors, momentum, force, gravitation, oscillations, energy, quantum physics, center of mass motion, rotation, angular momentum, statistical physics, and the laws of thermodynamics. No computer experience is needed. Examples illustrating basic principles being presented will be taken from physics, chemistry, and biology.

- 33-122 Physics II for Biological Sciences and Chemistry Students
- Fall and Spring: 9 units

This is the second course in the introductory physics sequence for chemistry and biological science majors. The course will consist of eight portions covering (1) electrostatics and dynamics, (2) electrical circuits, (3) magnetism, (4) waves, (5) optics, (6) diffusive motion, and (7) hydrostatic forces and flow. Emphasis will be put on the application of the underlying physical principles in the study of biology and chemistry.

Prerequisites: (21-120 and 33-121) or 33-151 or 33-141 or (21-120 and 33-111) or 33-131 or 33-106

- 33-124 Introduction to Astronomy
- Fall: 9 units

Astronomy continues to enjoy a golden age of exploration and discovery. This course presents a broad view of astronomy, straightforwardly descriptive and without any complex mathematics. The goal of the course is to encourage non-technical students to become scientifically literate and to appreciate new developments in the world of science, especially in the rapidly developing field of astronomy. Subjects covered include the solar system, stars, galaxies and the universe as a whole. The student should develop an appreciation of the ever-changing universe and our place within it. Computer laboratory exercises will be used to gain practical experience in astronomical techniques. In addition, small telescopes will be used to study the sky. This course is specifically geared toward non-science/engineering majors.

- 33-126 Astronomy Lab
- Fall: 3 units

This course is the laboratory source in science and astronomy. It overviews the scientific method, teaches how to obtain knowledge from data and to develop physics-based models of natural phenomena, trains how to use astronomical instruments (telescope) to make observations and to explain these observations qualitatively, and explains how to apply of the state-of-the art professional software to study our universe. Astronomy is one of the oldest fields of science with at least 3000 years of recorded history. On the astronomy side, major topics of this laboratory course include an overview of the Solar system and the Universe. The goals of the laboratory course are to expand the student?s understanding of the motions of objects through the sky, to use astronomical techniques, such as telescope and simulated observations, and to obtain, analyze, and interpret data.

- 33-131 Matter and Interaction I
- Fall: 12 units

A more challenging alternative to 33-111, Physics for Science Students I. Students with particularly strong physics backgrounds may volunteer for this course. Modeling of physical systems, including 3D computer modeling, with emphasis on atomic-level description and analysis of matter and its interactions. Momentum, numerical integration of Newton's laws, ball-and-spring model of solids, harmonic oscillator, energy, energy quantization, mass-energy equivalence, multiparticle systems, collisions, angular momentum including quantized angular momentum, kinetic theory of gases, statistical mechanics (temperature, entropy, and specific heat of the Einstein solid, Boltzmann factor).

- 33-132 Matter and Interactions II
- Spring: 12 units

A more challenging alternative to 33-112, Physics for Science Students II. Emphasis on atomic-level description and analysis of matter and its electric and magnetic interactions. Coulomb's law, polarization, electric field, plasmas, field of charge distributions, microscopic analysis of resistor and capacitor circuits, potential, macroscopic analysis of circuits, Gauss' law, magnetic field, atomic model of magnetism, Ampere's law, magnetic force, relativistic issues, magnetic induction with emphasis on non-Coulomb electric field, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation including its production and its effects on matter, re-radiation, interference. Computer modeling and visualization; desktop experiments.

Prerequisites: 21-120 and 33-131

- 33-141 Physics I for Engineering Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This is a first semester, calculus-based introductory physics course. Basic principles of mechanics and thermodynamics are developed. Topics include vectors, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, equilibrium, mass, Newton's laws, gravitation, work, energy, momentum, impulse, torque and angular momentum, temperature, heat, equations of state, thermodynamic processes, heat engines, refrigerators, first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the kinetic theory of gases.

- 33-142 Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students
- Fall and Spring: 12 units

This is the second half of a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics sequence for engineering and physics students. Two fifths of the course covers electricity, including electrostatics and electric fields, Gauss' law, electric potential, and simple circuits. Two fifths cover magnetism, including magnetic forces, magnetic fields, induction and electromagnetic radiation. One fifth of the course covers mechanical waves (including standing and traveling waves, superposition, and beats) and electromagnetic waves (including mode of propagation, speed, and other properties).

Prerequisites: 33-106 or 33-141 or (21-120 and 33-111) or 33-131 or 33-151 or (21-120 and 33-121)

- 33-151 Matter and Interactions I
- Fall: 12 units

For students with a strong physics background who are interested using calculus-based mechanics to learn about topics such as dark matter, particle physics, and quantum phenomena, Matter and Interactions I provides an excellent alternative to Physics for Science Students. This course places great emphasis on constructing and using physical models, with a special focus on computer modeling to solve problems. Throughout the course, both traditional analytics techniques and scientific computing will be used to solve mechanical problems going from planetary systems, spring-based systems and nuclear scattering. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, microscopic models of solids, energy, energy quantization, mass-energy equivalence, multi particle systems, collisions, angular momentum including quantized angular momentum, kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. Students are encouraged to do an optional research project that will be presented at a departmental poster session at the end of the semester.

Prerequisite: 21-120

- 33-152 Matter and Interactions II
- Spring: 12 units

A more challenging alternative to 33-142, Physics II for Engineering and Physics Students. There is an emphasis on atomic-level description and analysis of matter and its electric and magnetic interactions. Topics include: Coulomb's law, polarization, electric field, plasmas, field of charge distributions, microscopic analysis of resistor and capacitor circuits, potential, macroscopic analysis of circuits, Gauss' law, magnetic field, atomic model of magnetism, Ampere's law, magnetic force, relativistic issues, magnetic induction with emphasis on non-Coulomb electric field, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation including its production and its effects on matter, re-radiation, interference. There will also be computer modeling, visualization and desktop experiments.

Prerequisites: (33-151 and 21-122) or (33-131 and 21-122)

- 33-201 Physics Sophomore Colloquium I
- Fall: 2 units

This course (together with 33-202) is designed to give students an overview of the field of Physics and to help students make knowledgeable choices in both their academic and professional careers. We discuss several of the sub-fields of Physics in order to give students an understanding of the types of activities, from research to industrial applications, in each. Over the two semesters, we typically discuss six subfields in some detail with the goal of providing a minimal literacy in the relevant concepts and language. The course consists of one classroom lecture per week plus one hour per week of reading and/or problem solving.

- 33-202 Physics Sophomore Colloquium II
- Spring: 2 units

Continuation of 33-201.

- 33-211 Physics III: Modern Essentials
- Fall and Spring: 10 units

Physics III is primarily for third-semester students of physics, including all physics majors, but is open to any qualified student who wants an introduction to the physics of the 20th century. The course will have a strong component of Special Relativity, dealing with kinematics and dynamics, but not electricity and magnetism. (See 33-213 description.) It will introduce students to a conceptual theory, which is mathematically simple but (initially) non-intuitive. The course also provides a broad exposure to quantum phenomena and early quantum theory without getting overly mathematical. It leads into the more formal Quantum Physics course (33-234).

Prerequisites: 33-122 or 33-112 or 33-132 or 33-152 or 33-142 or 33-107

- 33-213 Mini-Course in Special Relativity
- Fall and Spring: 4 units

This course spans the first six weeks of 33-211, Physics III: Modern Essentials. It treats the Mechanics aspects of Special Relativity, including topics such as simultaneity, the Lorentz transformation, time dilation, length contraction, space-time geometry, resolving some famous puzzles, and the momentum, mass, and energy relations. The Electricity and Magnetism portions of the subject are deferred until the junior/senior courses in E&M (33-338/33-339).

Prerequisites: 33-152 or 33-122 or 33-142 or 33-112 or 33-132 or 33-107

- 33-224 Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
- Fall: 9 units

The study of astronomy has blossomed over the past few decades as a result of new ground-based and space-based telescopes, and with the advantage of fast computers for analysis of the huge quantities of data. As our astronomical horizon expands, we are still able to use the laws of physics to make sense of it all. This course is for students who want to understand the basic concepts in astronomy and what drives astronomical objects and the universe. The course emphasizes the application of a few physical principles to a variety of astronomical settings, from stars to galaxies to the structure and evolution of the universe. Introductory classical physics is required, but modern physics will be introduced as needed in the course. The course is intended for science and engineering majors as well as students in other disciplines with good technical backgrounds. Computer lab exercises will be used to gain practical experience in astronomical techniques. In addition, small telescopes are available for personal sign-out for those who would like to use them, and outdoor observing sessions will be organized as weather permits.

Prerequisites: 33-121 or 33-106 or 33-131 or 33-111 or 33-141 or 33-151

- 33-225 Quantum Physics and Structure of Matter
- Fall: 9 units

This course introduces the basic theory used to describe the microscopic world of electrons, atoms, and photons. The duality between wave-like and particle-like phenomena is introduced along with the deBroglie relations which link them. We develop a wave description appropriate for quanta which are partially localized and discuss the interpretation of these wavefunctions. The wave equation of quantum mechanics is developed and applied to the hydrogen atom from which we extrapolate the structure of the Periodic Table. Other materials-related applications are developed, for example, Boltzmann and quantum statistics and properties of electrons in crystals. This course is intended primarily for non-physics majors who have not taken 33-211.

Prerequisites: 33-107 or 33-132 or 33-112 or 33-142 or 33-122 or 33-152

- 33-228 Electronics I
- Spring: 10 units

An introductory laboratory and lecture course with emphasis on elementary circuit analysis, design, and testing. We start by introducing basic circuit elements and study the responses of combinations to DC and AC excitations. We then take up transistors and learn about biasing and the behavior of amplifier circuits. The many uses of operational amplifiers are examined and analyzed; general features of feedback systems are introduced in this context. Complex functions are used to analyze all of the above linear systems. Finally, we examine and build some simple digital integrated circuits.

Prerequisites: 33-122 or 33-142 or 33-107 or 33-132 or 33-112 or 33-152

- 33-231 Physical Analysis
- Fall: 10 units

This course aims to develop analytical skills and mathematical modeling skills across a broad spectrum of physical phenomena, stressing analogies in behavior of a wide variety of systems. Specific topics include dimensional analysis and scaling in physical phenomena, exponential growth and decay, the harmonic oscillator with damping and driving forces, linear approximations of nonlinear systems, coupled oscillators, and wave motion. Necessary mathematical techniques, including differential equations, complex exponential functions, matrix algebra, and elementary Fourier series, are introduced as needed.

Prerequisites: 21-122 and (33-152 or 33-142 or 33-112 or 33-132 or 33-107 or 33-122)

- 33-232 Mathematical Methods of Physics
- Spring: 10 units

This course introduces, in the context of physical systems, a variety of mathematical tools and techniques that will be needed for later courses in the physics curriculum. Topics will include, linear algebra, vector calculus with physical application, Fourier series and integrals, partial differential equations and boundary value problems. The techniques taught here are useful in more advanced courses such as Physical Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism, and Advanced Quantum Physics.

Prerequisite: 33-231

- 33-234 Quantum Physics
- Spring: 10 units

An introduction to the fundamental principles and applications of quantum physics. A brief review of the experimental basis for quantization motivates the development of the Schrodinger wave equation. Several unbound and bound problems are treated in one dimension. The properties of angular momentum are developed and applied to central potentials in three dimensions. The one electron atom is then treated. Properties of collections of indistinguishable particles are developed allowing an understanding of the structure of the Periodic Table of elements. A variety of mathematical tools are introduced as needed.

Prerequisite: 33-211

- 33-241 Introduction to Computational Physics
- Fall: 9 units

This undergraduate course will provide an introduction to the numerical methods and computational algorithms used to solve a variety of problems in physics. In introductory physics courses, you are able to derive analytical solutions for simpler problems and often with simplifying assumptions. Have you wondered if a numerical solution can be obtained for a more complex problem that has no closed-form analytical solution? Computational physics provides a modern and powerful approach to compliment classical approaches to problem solving. Today's and tomorrow's scientists must be computationally fluent to be competitive and successful. In this course, you will learn to formulate problems by applying physical principles, select and apply numerical methods, develop and apply computational algorithms, solve physical problems analytically and numerically, and visualize quantitative results using plotting software

Prerequisites: 15-112 and 21-122 and 33-104 and (33-142 or 33-122 or 33-132 or 33-152 or 33-107 or 33-112)

- 33-301 Physics Upperclass Colloquium I
- Fall: 1 unit

Upperclass Physics majors meet together for 1 hour a week to hear discussions on current physics research from faculty, undergraduate and graduate students, and outside speakers. Other topics of interest such as application to graduate school, areas of industrial research and job opportunities are also be presented.

- 33-302 Physics Upperclass Colloquium II
- Spring: 1 unit

Continuation of 33-301.

- 33-331 Physical Mechanics I
- Fall: 10 units

Fundamental concepts of classical mechanics. Conservation laws, momentum, energy, angular momentum, Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations, motion under a central force, scattering, cross section, and systems of particles.

Prerequisites: 21-259 and 33-232

- 33-332 Physical Mechanics II
- Spring: 10 units

This is the second semester of a two-semester course on classical mechanics. The course will use the tools developed in 33-331 to examine motion in non-inertial reference frames; in particular, rotating frames. This then leads to the development of general rigid body motion, Euler's Equations. Finally, the course will cover coupled oscillations with particular emphasis on normal modes.

Prerequisite: 33-331

- 33-338 Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I
- Fall: 10 units

This course includes the basic concepts of electro- and magnetostatics. In electrostatics, topics include the electric field and potential for typical configurations, work and energy considerations, the method of images and solutions of Laplace's Equation, multipole expansions, and electrostatics in the presence of matter. In magnetostatics, the magnetic field and vector potential, magnetostatics in the presence of matter, properties of dia-, para- and ferromagnetic materials are developed.

Prerequisites: 21-259 and 33-232

- 33-339 Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism II
- Spring: 10 units

This course focuses on electro- and magnetodynamics. Topics include Faraday's Law of induction, electromagnetic field momentum and energy, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves including plane waves, waves in non-conducting and conducting media, reflection and refraction of waves, and guided waves. Electromagnetic radiation theory includes generation and characteristics of electric and magnetic dipole radiation. The Special Theory of Relativity is applied to electrodynamics: electric and magnetic fields in different reference frames, Lorentz transformations, four-vectors, invariants, and applications to particle mechanics.

Prerequisite: 33-338

- 33-340 Modern Physics Laboratory
- Spring: 10 units

Emphasis is on hands-on experience observing important physical phenomena in the lab, advancing the student's experimental skills, developing sophisticated data analysis techniques, writing thorough reports, and improving verbal communication through several oral progress reports given during the semester and a comprehensive oral report on one experiment. Students perform three experiments which are drawn from the areas of atomic, condensed matter, classical, and nuclear and particle physics. Those currently available are the following: Zeeman effect, light scattering, optical pumping, thermal lensing, Raman scattering, chaos, magnetic susceptibility, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer effect, neutron activation of radioactive nuclides, Compton scattering, and cosmic ray muons.

Prerequisites: 33-234 and (33-331 or 33-338 or 33-341)

- 33-341 Thermal Physics I
- Fall: 10 units

The three laws of classical thermodynamics, which deal with the existence of state functions for energy and entropy and the entropy at the absolute zero of temperature, are developed along phenomenological lines. Elementary statistical mechanics is then introduced via the canonical ensemble to understand the interpretation of entropy in terms of probability and to calculate some thermodynamic quantities from simple models. These laws are applied to deduce relationships among heat capacities and other measureable quantities and then are generalized to open systems and their various auxiliary thermodynamic potentials; transformations between potentials are developed. Criteria for equilibrium of multicomponent systems are developed and applied to phase transformations and chemical reactions. Models of solutions are obtained by using statistical mechanics and are applied to deduce simple phase diagrams for ideal and regular solutions. The concept of thermodynamic stability is then introduced and illustrated in the context of phase transformations.

Prerequisites: 33-232 and 33-234

- 33-342 Thermal Physics II
- Spring: 10 units

This course begins with a more systematic development of formal probability theory, with emphasis on generating functions, probability density functions and asymptotic approximations. Examples are taken from games of chance, geometric probabilities and radioactive decay. The connections between the ensembles of statistical mechanics (microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) with the various thermodynamic potentials is developed for single component and multicomponent systems. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics are reviewed. These principles are then applied to applications such as electronic specific heats, Einstein condensation, chemical reactions, phase transformations, mean field theories, binary phase diagrams, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, defects, semiconductors and fluctuation phenomena.

Prerequisite: 33-341

- 33-350 Undergraduate Research
- Fall and Spring

The student undertakes a project of interest under the supervision of a faculty member. May include research done in a research lab, extending the capabilities of a teaching lab, or a theoretical or computational physics project. The student experiences the less structured atmosphere of a research program where there is much room for independent initiative. A list of research projects is available. The student must contact the Assistant Head for the Undergraduate Affairs before registering so that student project pairings can be set. Reports on results are required at end of semester.

- 33-353 Intermediate Optics
- Fall: 12 units

Offer alternative years. Geometrical optics: reflection and refraction, mirrors, prisms, lenses, apertures and stops, simple optical instruments, fiber optics. Scalar wave optics: wave properties of light, interference, coherence, interferometry, Huygens-Fresnel principle, Fraunhofer diffraction, resolution of optical instruments, Fourier optics, Fresnel diffraction. Laser beam optics: Gaussian beams. Vector wave optics: electromagnetic waves at dielectric interfaces, polarized light. The course will use complex exponential representations of electromagnetic waves.

Prerequisites: 33-132 or 33-112 or 33-142 or 33-152 or 33-122 or 33-107

- 33-355 Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
- Fall: 9 units

Offered alternative years. This course will explore the underlying science behind nanotechnology, the tools used to create and characterize nanostructures, and potential applications of such devices. Material will be presented on a level intended for upper-level science and engineering students. The course will start with a brief review of the physical principles of electric fields and forces, the nature of chemical bonds, the interaction of light with matter, and elastic deformation of solids. Characterization using electron microscopy, scanning probe methods, and spectroscopic techniques will then be described in detail. Fabrication using top-down and bottom-up methods will be discussed, contrasting these approaches and providing examples of each. Nanotechnology methods will be compared with those used in the modern micro-electronics industry. Finally, examples of nanoscale components and systems will be described, including quantum dots, self-assembled monolayers, molecular computing, and others. Stand-alone laboratory exercises will be included as an important element of the course. These will focus on the use of scanning probe methods to study the nm-scale structure and atomic forces involved in various nanostructures. Students will sign up for these laboratory sessions and perform the exercises under the supervision of a teaching assistant. In addition to the prerequisites, students should have taken a prior laboratory course in a science or engineering department and should have some familiarity with differential equations at an elementary level.

Prerequisites: 33-132 or 33-107 or 33-122 or 33-152 or 33-142 or 33-112

- 33-398 Special Topics
- Fall: 9 units

The description of most all physical systems relies on the concept of a manifold. In addition to the space-time manifold, which plays the role of the stage upon which the dynamics plays out, many systems involve target spaces which are manifolds. These target spaces are typically Lie Groups. A classic example of such a system is the rigid rotator, where every configuration of the system is a point on the manifold which defines the group of rotations. The purpose of this class will be to learn the basics of differential geometry and apply these ideas to physical systems. Topics will include Hamiltonian dynamics, fluid mechanics as well as gauge theories. Requirements: Knowledge of Linear Algebra. No prior knowledge of group theory will be expected.

Prerequisites: (21-260 or 33-231) and 21-341

- 33-441 Introduction to BioPhysics
- Fall: 10 units

This intermediate level course is primarily offered to Physics and Biology undergrads (junior/senior) and provides a modern view of molecular and cellular biology as seen from the perspective of physics, and quantified through the analytical tools of physics. This course will not review experimental biophysical techniques (which are covered, e.g., in 03-871). Rather, physicists will learn what sets "bio" apart from the remainder of the Physics world and how the apparent dilemma that the existence of life represents to classical thermodynamics is reconciled. They also will learn the nomenclature used in molecular biology. In turn, biologists will obtain (a glimpse of) what quantitative tools can achieve beyond the mere collecting and archiving of facts in a universe of observations: By devising models, non-obvious quantitative predictions are derived which can be experimentally tested and may lead to threads that connect vastly different, apparently unrelated phenomena. One major goal is then to merge the two areas, physics an biology, in a unified perspective.

Prerequisites: (03-151 or 03-121) and (33-132 or 33-122 or 33-112 or 33-152 or 33-142 or 33-107)

- 33-444 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics
- Spring: 9 units

Description of our understanding of nuclei, elementary particles, and quarks, with equal emphasis on the nuclear and particle aspects of sub-atomic matter. We discuss the physics of accelerators, and how particle interactions with matter lead to various kinds of detector instrumentation. Then we discuss methods for measuring sub-atomic structure, symmetries and conservation laws, and the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. We examine the quark model of the mesons and baryons, as well as several models of the atomic nucleus.

Prerequisites: 33-234 and 33-338

- 33-445 Advanced Quantum Physics I
- Fall: 9 units

Mathematics of quantum theory, linear algebra and Hilbert spaces; review of classical mechanics; problems with classical mechanics; postulates of quantum theory; one dimensional applications; the harmonic oscillator; uncertainty relations; systems with N degrees of freedom, multi-particle states, identical particles; approximation methods.

Prerequisite: 33-234

- 33-446 Advanced Quantum Physics II
- Spring: 9 units

Classical symmetries; quantum symmetries; rotations and angular momentum; spin; addition of angular momentum; the hydrogen atom; quantum "paradoxes" and Bell's theorem; applications.

Prerequisite: 33-445

- 33-448 Introduction to Solid State Physics
- Spring: 9 units

This course gives a quantitative description of crystal lattices, common crystal structures obtained by adding a basis of atoms to the lattice, and the definition and properties of the reciprocal lattice. Diffraction measurements are studied as tools to quantify crystal lattices, including Bragg's law and structure factors. Diffraction from amorphous substances and liquids is also introduced. The various types of atomic bonding, e.g., Van der Waals, metallic, ionic, covalent and hydrogen are surveyed. Binding energies of some crystalline structures are calculated. Models of crystal binding are generalized to include dynamics, first for classical lattice vibrations and then for quantized lattice vibrations known as phonons. These concepts are used to calculate the heat capacities of insulating crystals, to introduce the concept of density of states, and to discuss phonon scattering. The band theory of solids is developed, starting with the free electron model of a metal and culminating with the properties of conductors and semiconductors. Magnetic phenomena such as paramagnetism and the mean field theory of ferromagnetism are covered to the extent that time permits.

Prerequisites: 33-341 and (33-225 or 33-234)

- 33-451 Senior Research
- Fall and Spring

Open to all senior physics majors. May include research done in a research lab, extending the capabilities of a teaching lab, or a theoretical or computational physics project. The student experiences the less structured atmosphere of a research program where there is much room for independent initiative. Modern Physics Laboratory, 33-340, should precede this course, though it is not required. A list of research projects is available. The student must contact a faculty member and/or the Assistant Head for the Undergraduate Affairs before registering so that student project pairings can be set. Reports on results are required at end of semester.

- 33-456 Advanced Computational Physics
- Spring: 9 units

This course extends the study of the topics of 33-241 emphasizing practical numerical, symbolic and data-driven computational techniques as applied to a selection of currently active research areas. It is taught by faculty and staff actively engaged in a variety of areas of computational science. Numerical methods may include SVD decomposition, chi-squared minimization, and Fast Fourier Transforms and Monte Carlo simulation of experiments. Applications may include data analysis, eigenvalue problems and others depending on the research activities of the instructors. The students will be expected to become proficient in a specific programming language and to gain the ability to move to other languages and algorithms as their future computationally intensive efforts may require.

Prerequisite: 33-241

- 33-466 Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology
- Spring: 9 units

Starting from the expanding universe of galaxies, this course lays out the structure of the universe from the Local Group of galaxies to the largest structures observed. The observational pinnacle of the Big Bang theory, the microwave background radiation, is shown to provide us with many clues to conditions in the early universe and to the parameters which control the expansion and fate of the universe. Current theories for the development of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are outlined in terms of our current understanding of dark matter. Observational cosmology continues to enjoy a golden era of discovery and the latest observational results will be interpreted in terms of the basic cosmological parameters.

Prerequisites: 33-224 and 33-234

- 33-467 Astrophysics of Stars and the Galaxy
- Fall: 9 units

The physics of stars is introduced from first principles, leading from star formation to nuclear fusion to late stellar evolution and the end points of stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. The theory of stellar structure and evolution is elegant and impressively powerful, bringing together all branches of physics to predict the life cycles of the stars. The basic physical processes in the interstellar medium will also be described, and the role of multi-wavelength astronomy will be used to illustrate our understanding of the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy, from the massive black hole at the center to the halo of dark matter which emcompasses it.

Prerequisites: 33-224 and 33-234

- 33-499 Supervised Reading
- Fall and Spring

The student explores a certain area of advanced physics under the supervision of a faculty member. The student must contact a faculty member and the Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs before registering.

- 33-650 General Relativity
- Fall: 9 units

General Relativity is the classical theory of gravity. It is widely recognized as a beautiful theory - equating gravity and the geometry of spacetime leads to a profound conceptual change in the way we regard the universe. The predictions of the theory are relevant to systems as varied as high precision measurements of the earth's gravitational field or the strongly curved space-times around black holes. In this course, we will gradually develop an understanding of the geometries which are the solutions of the Einstein equation, with an emphasis on their relevance to physical situations. We will motivate the theory step by step and eventually introduce the Einstein equation itself. Typical Textbook(s): "Gravity, An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity" by James Hartle.

Prerequisites: 33-211 and 33-339

- 33-658 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Theory
- Spring: 10 units

This course, taught in collaboration with the Computer Science Department, provides an overview of recent developments in quantum computation and quantum information theory. The topics include: an introduction to quantum mechanics, quantum channels, both ideal and noisy, quantum cryptography, an introduction to computational complexity, Shor's factorization algorithm, Grover's search algorithm, and proposals for the physical realization of quantum devices, such as correlated photons, ions in traps, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The course includes a weekly seminar. Typical Textbook(s): "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang.

- 33-755 Quantum Mechanics I
- Fall: 12 units

This course introduces fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics. Applications are made to quantum computing, the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, electron spin and addition of angular momentum. 3hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Cohen-Tannoudji Quantum Mechanics, volume 1.

Prerequisite: 33-446

- 33-756 Quantum Mechanics II
- Spring: 12 units

This course focuses on qualitative and approximation methods in quantum mechanics, including time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering and semiclassical methods. Applications are made to atomic, molecular and solid matter. Systems of identical particles are treated including many electron atoms and the Fermi gas. Prerequisite: 33-755, Quantum Mechanics I; 33-759 Theoretical Physics. 3 hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Cohen-Tannoudji Quantum Mechanics, volume 2.

- 33-758 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Theory
- Spring: 12 units

This course, taught in collaboration with the Computer Science Department, provides an overview of recent developments in quantum computation and quantum information theory. The topics include: an introduction to quantum mechanics, quantum channels, both ideal and noisy, quantum cryptography, an introduction to computational complexity, Shor's factorization algorithm, Grover's search algorithm, and proposals for the physical realization of quantum devices, such as correlated photons, ions in traps, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The textbook is Nielsen and Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. 3 hrs. lecture plus weekly seminar. A 10 unit version of the course, 33-658, does not include the seminar.

- 33-759 Introduction to Mathematical Physics I
- Fall: 12 units

This course is an introduction to methods of mathematical analysis used in solving physical problems. Emphasis is placed both upon the generality of the methods, through a variety of sample problems, and upon their underlying principles. Topics normally covered include matrix algebra (normal modes, diagonalization, symmetry properties), complex variables and analytic functions, differential equations (Laplace's equation and separation of variables, special functions and their analytic properties), orthogonal systems of functions. 3 hrs. lecture and recitation. Typical Text: G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists.

- 33-761 Classical Electrodynamics I
- Fall: 12 units

This course deals with the static and dynamic properties of the electromagnetic field as described by Maxwell's equations. Among the topics emphasized are solutions of Laplace's, Poisson's and wave equations, effects of boundaries, Green's functions, multipole expansions, emission and propagation of electromagnetic radiation and the response of dielectrics, metals, magnetizable bodies to fields. 3 hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Ed.

Prerequisite: 33-339

- 33-762 Classical Electrodynamics II
- Spring: 12 units

The applications of electromagnetic theory to various physical systems is the main emphasis of this course. The topics discussed include the theory of wave guides, scattering of electromagnetic waves, index of refraction, special relativity and foundation of optics. 3 hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics. 2nd Ed.

- 33-765 Statistical Mechanics
- Spring: 12 units

This course develops the methods of statistical mechanics and uses them to calculate observable properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Topics treated include the principles of classical thermodynamics, canonical and grand canonical ensembles for classical and quantum mechanical systems, partition functions and statistical thermodynamics, fluctuations, ideal gases of quanta, atoms and polyatomic molecules, degeneracy of Fermi and Bose gases, chemical equilibrium, ideal paramagnetics and introduction to simple interacting systems. 3 hrs. lecture, 1 hr. recitation. Typical Texts: Reif, Statistical and Thermal Physics; Pathria, Statistical Mechanics.

- 33-767 Biophysics: From Basic Concepts to Current Research
- Spring: 12 units

This course mixes lectures and student presentations on advanced topis in Biological Physics. In the course, students will gain a deep appreciation of the fact that very basic physical and chemical principles underly many central life processes. Life is not only compatible with the laws of physics and chemistry, rather, it exploits them in ingenious ways. After taking the course, students should be able to name examples of such situations for which they can provide a coherent line of reasoning that outlines these connections. They will be able to explain key experiments by which these connections either have been found or are nowadays routinely established, and outline simple back-of-the-envelope estimates by which one can convince oneself of either the validity or inapplicability of certain popular models and ideas. They should also have become sufficiently familiar with the key terminology frequently encountered in biology, such that they can start to further educate themselves by consulting biological and biophysical literature. The course uses Physical Biology of the Cell by Rob Phillips et al. (Garland Science, New York, NY, 2013, ISBN 978-0-8153-4450-6).

- 33-769 Quantum Mechanics III: Many Body and Relativistic Systems
- Fall: 12 units

The first main theme of this course is quantum mechanics applied to selected many-body problems in atomic, nuclear and condensed matter physics. The second main theme is relativistic quantum mechanics. Creation and annihilation operators are introduced and used to discuss Hartree-Fock theory as well as electromagnetic radiation. The Dirac equation is introduced and applied to the hydrogen atom. Prerequisite: 33-756, 33-76l. 3 hrs. lecture

- 33-770 Field Theory I
- Fall: 12 units

This course gives systematic studies of the relativistic field theories. Topics included are canonical quantization of fields, LSZ reduction formula, Feynman diagram techniques, application to quantum electrodynamics and the discussion of the methods of renormalization. Prerequisite: 33-769. 3 hrs. lecture.

- 33-771 Field Theory II
- All Semesters: 12 units

Missing Course Description - please contact the teaching department.

- 33-777 Introductory Astrophysics
- Fall: 12 units

Introductory Astrophysics will explore the applications of physics to the following areas: (i) celestial mechanics and dynamics, (ii) the physics of solar system objects, (iii) the structure, formation and evolution of stars and galaxies, (iv) the large scale structure of the universe of galaxies, (v) cosmology: the origin, evolution and fate of the universe.

- 33-779 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics
- Fall: 12 units

An introduction to the physics of atomic nuclei and elementary particles. This course is suitable as a one-semester course for students not specializing in this area and also provides an introduction to further work in 33-780, 33-78l. Topics included are symmetry principles of strong and weak interactions, quark model, classification of particles and nuclear forces. Prerequisite: 33-769 (or con-currently). 3 hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Perkins, Introduction to High Energy Physics, plus notes and reading.

- 33-780 Nuclear and Particle Physics II
- Spring: 12 units

This course covers the phenomenology of weak interactions, parton model for the deep inelastic scattering, and introduction to gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Various topics of current interest in particle physics will also be included. Prerequisite: 33-779, 33-770 (or concurrently). 3 hrs. lecture.

- 33-783 Solid State Physics
- Fall: 12 units

This course is designed to give advanced graduate students a fundamental knowledge of the microscopic properties of solids in terms of molecular and atomic theory, crystal structures, x-ray diffraction of crystals and crystal defects, lattice vibration and thermal properties of crystals; free-electron model, energy bands, electrical conduction and magnetism. Prerequisite: 33-756. 3 hrs. lecture. Typical Text: Ashcroft and Mermin, Solid State Physics.

Prerequisite: 33-756 Min. grade B

## Faculty

JOHN ALISON, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 2018–

DAVID ANDERSON, Assistant Teaching Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of York (UK) ; Carnegie Mellon, 2008–

SHILADITYA BANERJEE, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Syracuse University; Carnegie Mellon, 2020–

ROY A. BRIERE, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Chicago; Carnegie Mellon, 1999–

HAEL COLLINS, Assistant Teaching Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Harvard University; Carnegie Mellon, 2019–

RUPERT CROFT, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Oxford University; Carnegie Mellon, 2001–

MARKUS DESERNO, Professor of Physics – Ph. D., University of Mainz, Germany; Carnegie Mellon, 2007–

TIZIANA DI MATTEO, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Cambridge; Carnegie Mellon, 2004–

SCOTT DODELSON, Professor of Physics; Head, Department of Physics – Ph.D., Columbia University; Carnegie Mellon, 2017–

ULRIKE ENDESFELDER, Associate Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Bielefeld University; Carnegie Mellon, 2020–

RANDALL M. FEENSTRA, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., California Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1995–

STEPHEN GAROFF, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Harvard University; Carnegie Mellon, 1988–

KUNAL GHOSH, Teaching Professor of Physics, Assistant Head for Undergraduate Affairs, Department of Physics – Ph.D., Iowa State University; Carnegie Mellon, 2001–

FREDERICK J. GILMAN, Buhl Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Princeton University; Carnegie Mellon, 1995–

FRANK HEINRICH, Research Associate of Physics – Ph.D., University of Leipzig; Carnegie Mellon, 2008–

BENJAMIN HUNT, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Cornell University; Carnegie Mellon, 2009–

TINA KAHNIASHVILI, Research Associate Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences; Carnegie Mellon, 2010–

JYOTI KATOCH, Assistant Professor or Physics – Ph.D., University of Central Florida; Carnegie Mellon, 2018–

SERGEY KOPOSOV, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Heidelberg; Carnegie Mellon, 2016-–

MATHIAS LOSCHE, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Technical University of Munich; Carnegie Mellon, 2005–

BARRY B. LUOKKALA, Teaching Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 1980–

SARA A. MAJETICH, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Georgia; Carnegie Mellon, 1990–

RACHEL MANDELBAUM, Associate Professor in Physics – Ph.D., Princeton University; Carnegie Mellon, 2012–

CURTIS A. MEYER, Professor of Physics; Associate Dean, Mellon College of Science – Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 1993–

COLIN J. MORNINGSTAR, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Toronto; Carnegie Mellon, 2000–

DIANA PARNO, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 2017–

MANFRED PAULINI, Professor of Physics; Associate Dean, Mellon College of Science – Ph.D., University of Erlangen, Germany; Carnegie Mellon, 2000–

RICCARDO PENCO, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Syracuse University; Carnegie Mellon, 2018–

JEFFREY B. PETERSON, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 1993–

BRIAN P. QUINN, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1988–

IRA Z. ROTHSTEIN, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Maryland at College Park; Carnegie Mellon, 1997–

REINHARD A. SCHUMACHER, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1987–

SIMRANJEET SINGH, Research Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Central Florida; Carnegie Mellon, 2018–

HY TRAC, Associate Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Toronto; Carnegie Mellon, 2010–

MATTHEW WALKER, Assistant Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Michigan; Carnegie Mellon, 2013–

MICHAEL WIDOM, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Chicago; Carnegie Mellon, 1985–

DI XIAO, Associate Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin; Carnegie Mellon, 2012–

## Emeriti Faculty

LUC BERGER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Carnegie Mellon, 1960–

ARNOLD ENGLER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Berne, Switzerland; Carnegie Mellon, 1962–

THOMAS A. FERGUSON, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of California at Los Angeles; Carnegie Mellon; Carnegie Mellon, 1985–

JOHN G. FETKOVICH, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 1959–

GREGG B. FRANKLIN, Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1984–

RICHARD GRIFFITHS, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Leicester, U.K.; Carnegie Mellon, 1996–

ROBERT GRIFFITHS, University Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D, Stanford University; Carnegie Mellon, 1962–

RICHARD F. HOLMAN, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., John Hopkins University; Carnegie Mellon; Carnegie Mellon, 1987–

LEONARD S. KISSLINGER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Indiana University; Carnegie Mellon, 1969–

GEORGE KLEIN, Associate Teaching Professor of Physics – Ph.D., New York University; Carnegie Mellon, 1993–

ROBERT W. KRAEMER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University; Carnegie Mellon, 1965–

MICHAEL J. LEVINE, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., California Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1968–

LING-FONG LI, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 1974–

JOHN F. NAGLE, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Yale University; Carnegie Mellon, 1967–

JAMES S. RUSS, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Princeton University; Carnegie Mellon, 1967–

ROBERT T. SCHUMACHER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Illinois; Carnegie Mellon, 1957–

ROBERT F. SEKERKA, University Professor of Physics and Mathematics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Harvard ; Carnegie Mellon, 1969–

ROBERT M. SUTER, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Clark University; Carnegie Mellon, 1981–

ROBERT H. SWENDSEN, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 1984–

STEPHANIE TRISTRAM-NAGLE, Research Professor of Physics, Emerita – Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 1986–

NED S. VANDER VEN, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D., Princeton University; Carnegie Mellon, 1961–

HELMUT VOGEL, Professor of Physics, Emeritus – Ph.D. , University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; Carnegie Mellon, 1983–

## Joint Appointments and Courtesy Appointments

SHELLEY ANNA, Professor of Chemical Engineering – Ph.D., Harvard University; Carnegie Mellon, 2003–

AXEL BRANDENBURG, Adjunct Professor of Physics – Ph.D., University of Helsinki; Carnegie Mellon, 2018–

SHIRLEY HO, Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics – Ph.D., Princeton University; Carnegie Mellon, 2012–

MOHAMMAD F. ISLAM, Associate Research Professor of Materials Science & Engineering – Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 2005–

NOA MAROM, Assistant Professor of Material Science and Engineering – Ph.D., Weizmann of Science; Carnegie Mellon, 2016–

MICHAEL E. MCHENRY, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering – Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1989–

ANTHONY D. ROLLETT, Professor of Materials Science & Engineering – Ph.D., Drexel University; Carnegie Mellon, 1995–

MAREK SKOWRONSKI, Professor of Material Science and Engineering – Ph.D., Warsaw University; Carnegie Mellon, 1988–

VENKAT VISWANATHAN, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering – Ph.D., Stanford University; Carnegie Mellon, 2014–

JIAN-GANG ZHU, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering – Ph.D., University of California San Diego; Carnegie Mellon, 1997–