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Department of History Courses

Note on Course Numbers

Each Carnegie Mellon course number begins with a two-digit prefix which designates the department offering the course (76-xxx courses are offered by the Department of English, etc.). Although each department maintains its own course numbering practices, typically the first digit after the prefix indicates the class level: xx-1xx courses are freshmen-level, xx-2xx courses are sophomore level, etc. xx-6xx courses may be either undergraduate senior-level or graduate-level, depending on the department. xx-7xx courses and higher are graduate-level. Please consult the Schedule of Classes each semester for course offerings and for any necessary pre-requisites or co-requisites.

79-104 Global Histories
Fall and Spring: 9 units
Human activity transcends political, geographical, and cultural boundaries. From wars to social movements, technological innovations to environmental changes, our world has long been an interconnected one. Acquiring the ability to understand such transnational and even worldwide processes is an indispensable part of any college education. This course provides students with an opportunity to develop the skills and perspectives needed to understand the contemporary world through investigating its global history. All sections are comparable in their composition of lectures and recitations, required amounts of reading, and emphasis on written assignments as the central medium of assessment. The sections all aim to help students: (1) master knowledge through interaction with the instructors, reading material, and other students, (2) think critically about the context and purpose of any given information, (3) craft effective verbal and written arguments by combining evidence, logic, and creativity, and (4) appreciate the relevance of the past in the present and future. For descriptions of specific sections, see "First Year Experience" at the Dietrich College General Education Website: http://www.hss.cmu.edu/gened/.
79-157 Freshman Seminar: Famine: Food Supplies and Food Crises in Past and Present,
Intermittent: 9 units
This course studies problems of food supplies, food shortages, and famine in the context of social, economic, family, and population systems. We use studies by historians, sociologists, demographers and economists to explore the topic. We use the historical record to show how population systems in East and West functioned to keep resources and needs in balance, and how they often failed. We explore theoretical models that shed light on how and why famines occur, including Malthus's theory of population and, more recently, Amartya Sen's theory of food entitlements. We examine several case studies of famine closely, including the Irish famine of the mid-nineteenth century and the Bengal famine of 1943-44 to understand their causes and consequences. In order to understand how different societies addressed food shortages and famine, we also look at the work of government agencies, charitable institutions, and NGOs [non-governmental agencies] in mitigating famine's effects. The course uses scholarly studies as well as primary sources such as eyewitness accounts, journalists' accounts and government reports to evoke the human experience of famine. Coursework includes assigned readings and discussion, oral reports, and responses to reading assignments. Students will also have the opportunity to carry out individual research projects.
79-162 Freshman Seminar: "Slavery" and "Freedom" in African History?
Intermittent: 9 units
Living in a society still struggling to come to grips with its own history of slavery, American scholars have often imposed words like "slavery" and "freedom" onto African contexts. Such labels have the effect of masking dynamic social institutions in pre-colonial Africa. This course will turn this terminology on its head by delineating the relationship between "slavery" and "freedom," kinship, dependency, and marginality. It will look historically at institutions which are integral to African societies, such as patron-client relationships, marriage, and pawnship. It will interrogate the multiple ways that these institutions functioned before the period of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the multiple ways that African communities transformed their institutions in response to it. Students will engage a variety of texts, historians? debates in secondary sources, first-hand testimonies of African "slaves" in primary sources, novels which describe the lives of enslaved people in Africa, and recent films which highlight the experiences of enslaved people in Africa and distinguish their condition from enslaved people in the New World.
79-164 Freshman Seminar: The Slave Passage: From West Africa to the Americas
Intermittent: 9 units
"The Slave Passage" begins among flourishing, technologically advanced, and globally connected Western African societies before the advent of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. It answers questions that have pre-occupied historians for decades: what social, political, and economic factors propelled Western African states and stateless societies to engage in the trans-Atlantic trade in captives? Did "slavery" exist in Africa before the advent of European trade? Who were the Africans who were captured and taken from their homelands? It tells the painful story of Western Africa's transformation as a result of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and African captives experiences in the horrors of the Middle Passage. The course bears witness to the humanity of more than 150,000 souls imported from Western Africa to the New World by piecing together the historical record of the Middle Passage and recovering the stories of the suffering captives experienced aboard the slaving vessels and their multiple strategies of resistance. It examines the changing technology of the slave ships on which they were imprisoned. Lastly, the course will explore the Creole cultures and languages created by the descendants of enslaved Africans in various ports in the New World. Students will read and analyze slave narratives, slave ship logs, and autobiographies of former enslaved people, watch and analyze films depicting the Middle Passage and New World enslavement, and engage in public history and/or artistic performances related to the subject matter.
79-167 Freshman Seminar: Issues in American Environmental History
Intermittent: 9 units
This seminar will focus on major issues in the evolution of the American environment. Much of America's past environmental history has been beset with controversy, as scientists and engineers, health officials, politicians and the public debated about the cause and solution for various environmental problems. This seminar will examine some of the major environmental issues that have evolved over time through a combination of reading, discussion, and short papers.
79-168 Freshman Seminar: The Juvenile Court: Past and Present
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will track the development of an American institution, the juvenile court, from its late 19th century origins to the present. We will integrate historical, legal, sociological, and cultural perspectives in tracking the court's evolution, culminating in a careful look at how recent reform movements are playing out nationally. Readings will include a wide variety of secondary and primary historical sources from different time periods. We will also view and discuss several films (including Frederick Wiseman's 1973 classic, "Juvenile Court"). As opportunities develop, we may also hear from current court practitioners as guest lecturers. The course will be discussion-based. I will do very little formal lecturing, and I expect students to take on increasing responsibility for launching and guiding class discussions as the semester progresses. Evaluation will be based on in-class mid-term and final exams, several oral presentations and brief writing assignments, and contributions to class discussion.
79-178 Freshman Seminar: Body Politics: Women and Health in America
Intermittent: 9 units
Women's bodies have been the sites of long-standing, and sometimes deadly, political battles. This course takes a topical approach to the history of American women's health in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in order to understand why women's bodies have been such heated sites of struggle. It covers topics such as the history of contraception, abortion, menstruation, sexuality, female anatomy, rape, domestic abuse, menopause, pregnancy, and childbirth. It explores how American culture has constructed these issues over time, while also examining women's organizing around them.
79-185 Grand Challenge Interdisciplinary Freshman Seminar: Racism
Intermittent: 9 units
Racism is everywhere in the twenty-first century. In August 2009, the renowned Indian actor, Sharukh Khan, was detained at Newark International Airport. According to Khan, his Muslim surname led American immigration officials to question him about the nature of his visit for over two hours. Was his treatment racist? In 2011, Luis Suarez a Uruguayan soccer player was punished for allegedly calling French footballer Patrice Evra "negro" in England. But was the word "negro," said in Spanish, racist? Racism is a complex phenomenon that refers to historically hierarchical power differences between groups (e.g. Native populations and Europeans during the conquest), ideas about how humans can be classified into groups by "race," and also discriminatory practices against non-dominant groups. This system of social relations and ideology serves to justify social inequality and differential treatment. If we are to end racism, we must strive to understand it. What are the historical origins of racism? How is racism reproduced? How does race influence identity formation? Can racism produce positive identities? Why has the struggle against racism shifted from a demand for human rights to a search for diversity and inclusion? This course will examine racism in Pittsburgh, in the United States, and in several other countries and regions throughout the world. We will approach racism from multiple academic perspectives with a team of three faculty from the departments of History, English and Modern Languages. This team-based interdisciplinary approach to Freshman Seminars draws on several departments and guest speakers.
79-198 Research Training History
Fall and Spring: 9 units
This course is part of a set of 100-level courses offered by Dietrich College departments as independent studies for second-semester freshmen and first- or second-semester sophomores in the College. In general, these courses are designed to give students some real research experience through work on a faculty project in ways that might stimulate and nurture subsequent interest in research participation. Faculty and students devise a personal and regularized meeting and task schedule. Each Research Training course is worth 9 units, which generally means a minimum for students of about 9 work-hours per week. Prerequisites/restrictions: For Dietrich College students only; minimum cumulative QPA of 3.0 (at the time of registration) required for approved entry; additional prerequisites (e.g., language proficiency) may arise out of the particular demands of the research project in question. By permission of the relevant professor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students sign up for these courses through both the History Department and the Dean's Office.
79-200 Introduction to Historical Research & Writing
Fall and Spring: 9 units
This course introduces students to methods and materials that historians use to study the past. Its goals are: first, to familiarize students with ways that historians think about their research, how they carry it out, and how they debate findings with other historians; second, to train students in "best practices" for doing historical research in primary and secondary sources. We discuss how to ask questions about the past and develop a one-semester research topic, find appropriate primary and secondary sources, take notes from those sources, and write a paper that answers an original question using skills we have studied. In the Fall 2016 semester, we will use the topic of World War I to focus the class. In the Spring 2017 semester, we will use the topic of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Work includes reading and discussing a variety of sources; completing short assignments such as primary document analyses, response papers, and reports related to students' research topics; occasional oral progress reports to the class, and outlines or drafts. There is a final 10-15 page research paper.
79-201 Introduction to Anthropology
Fall and Spring: 9 units
Cultural anthropologists "make the strange familiar and the familiar strange," attempting to understand the internal logic of cultures which might, at first glance, seem bizarre to us, while at the same time probing those aspects of our own society which might appear equally bizarre to outsiders. In doing so, anthropology makes us more aware of our own culturally-ingrained assumptions, while broadening our understanding of the possibilities and alternatives in human experience. This course will use ethnographic writings (descriptive accounts of particular cultures), as well as ethnographic films, to investigate the ways in which diverse societies structure family life, resolve conflict, construct gender relations, organize subsistence, etc. We will assess the advantages and pitfalls of comparing cross-cultural data, analyze the workings of power within and between societies, and consider the politics of cultural representations. We will also discuss the anthropologist's relationship to the people s/he studies, and the responsibilities inherent in that relationship. Throughout the course, students will learn the importance of an historical perspective on culture, looking at how and why societies change, and considering how we, as anthropologists, should assess these changes.
79-202 Flesh and Spirit: Early Modern Europe, 1400-1750
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines European history from the Black Death to the French Revolution, a period known to history as the "early modern" period. That is, it marks a period in European history that was not quite medieval, and yet not quite modern. Many features of modern society, such as the nation-state, free-trade economies, religious pluralism, scientific rationalism, and secular culture trace their origins to the early modern era, yet the period was also marked by important continuities with the Middle Ages. During this course, we will explore how Europeans re-imagined their world in its transition from the medieval to the modern. Topics to be considered will include the "renaissance" of the arts, the problems of religious reform, exploration and colonialism, the rise of science, and the expansion of the state. Through these developments, we will focus on Europeans' changing notions of the human body, the body politic, and the natural world, as well as their re-interpretations of the proper relation between the human and the divine, the individual and the community, and the present and the past.
79-203 Social and Political Change in 20th Century Central and Eastern Europe
Intermittent: 9 units
During the course, students will develop their knowledge of the geographical, cultural, and political characteristics of 20th century Central and Eastern Europe. By analyzing the sweeping political changes in the region that had occurred in a relatively short historical time, students will better understand the emergence of nationalist movements and radical political ideologies such as socialism and fascism during the interwar period against a backdrop of regional histories of centuries-long inter-ethnic cohabitation. They will also assess to what extent these earlier histories continued to subtly influence the social landscapes of post-1945 Central and Eastern Europe, thus complicating the processes of socialist modernization that the new regimes tried to implement in the region under the close scrutiny of the USSR. Course materials will include not only historical and anthropological readings, but also historical documents, literary texts and films from the region. The assignments will consist of regular participation in class discussions, weekly responses to the readings, two critical essays (each 5-6 pages long), and a final exam.
79-205 20th/21st Century Europe
Intermittent: 9 units
[Note: students who have already taken this course under its former title 79-205, 20th Century Europe may not enroll.] This course surveys the history of Europe from 1900 to 2000 and beyond. While it covers major political trends and social/economic changes of the last century, it concentrates on the following themes: the extraordinary violence of the two World Wars — and their continuing impact on politics, society, and culture; social and political movements/regimes of the Far Right and of the Socialist/Communist Left; the rise and crisis of the European welfare state and of the European Union; reactions to U.S. power and to Americanization; cultural and political controversies surrounding Islam and Muslims in Europe today.
79-206 Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe
Intermittent: 6 units
This mini course will examine early modern European legal institutions and their role in defining and enforcing societal norms of conduct and belief. We will focus especially on how shifting definitions of "crime" and "punishment" within the period reflected prevailing societal attitudes and anxieties toward perceived acts of deviance and persons on the margins of society. Assigned readings will examine early modern European criminal court systems, investigation and punishment of crime, and criminalization of social deviance (witches, vagrants, religious minorities and other outcasts).
79-207 Development of European Culture
Intermittent: 9 units
This course surveys the evolution of European culture from 1500-1950. It defines 'culture' broadly to include not only philosophy, literature, and art but also science, manners, sexuality, morality, and religion. Lectures, readings, and discussions will introduce students to European thinking and writing on these questions. The course will place cultural change in the context of politics and society. Readings will include historical studies, novels, plays, and memoirs. Assignments will include six 3-page essays and one 6-page essay.
79-210 Identity, Nationhood, and State
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is ONLY offered at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. This broad introductory course to general history through the prism of literature and politics aims at appreciating humanism and identity from the distant past on. 1. It discusses the significance of language and speech aptitude as a primordial and universal trait upon which rests the possibility of association and organization. This aptitude has made humans history conscious. 2. It explores some basic facts about the pre-19th century Western tradition of governance and the place of the individual within it, along with the expansion of these European states into the world in the aftermath of the maritime navigation and colonial conquest. An emphasis is placed on the pivotal European movements of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. The first, with its humanism in the 16th century, promoted a sense of identity associated with the language spoken in ones area and the rise from the old medieval notion of suzerainty of the local gentry over local communities to the sovereignty of the monarchy of the area, thereby the nation state. The second, the 18th century Enlightenment, led to reforms and revolutions. These transformations, including the growth of literacy, have significantly marked Europe and subsequently the rest of the world that experienced European domination or influence. All this has resulted in the making of broad communities of European language speakers who are not of European descent.
79-211 Introduction to South East Asia
Intermittent: 9 units
TBA
79-217 The War in Vietnam
Intermittent: 6 units
The Vietnam War, the first war to be televised, is one of the most controversial events in the post-World War Two history of the United States. What began as a limited advisory mission aimed at saving the "free" nation of South Vietnam from Communism soon escalated to full-scale warfare that provoked widespread domestic protest and resistance to and evasion of the Draft. Eventually, the strategic basis for U. S. foreign policy in general was called into question. The U. S. withdrew combat troops in 1973, and Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese in 1975 as America watched from its living room. This course covers the war in Vietnam from the 1950s through the fall of Saigon in 1975 and its legacies. It will examine not only the military and political aspects of the war, but also the social and cultural consequences in the U. S. during and after the war.
79-218 United States and the World
Intermittent: 9 units
Combining lecture and class discussion of primary source documents, this course will examine the United States' use of hard and soft power around the world since 1877. It will blend high-level foreign affairs with the daily lives of ordinary Americans and the lives of other peoples, and closely examine specific commodities like Hawai'ian pineapples, West African chocolate, Middle Eastern oil, and China-made iPhones.
79-219 Modern Cuba: A Travel Guide for Millennials, 1898 to the Present
Intermittent: 6 units
In July 2015 Cuba and the United States re-established diplomatic relations after more than fifty years of conflict. This mini course is intended to provide students with a guide for understanding contemporary Cuba with an emphasis on its unique relationship to the United States, a relationship that started long before the Cold War, and remains controversial long after the fall of Soviet-led communism. We will devote two weeks to exploring Cuba and its intimate relationship with the United States beginning in 1898 when Cubans gained independence from Spain only to become part of the United States' "informal" empire. We will then examine the causes and outcomes of the 1959 Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro and Ché Guevara that promised to build a "new man" under socialism. The final third of the course will consider Cuba after the Cold War in order to understand how and why Cuban society is changing. Our "guide" to Cuba will include travel literature, music, film and video in addition to scholarly writings.
79-220 Screening Mexico: Mexican Cinema, 1898 to Present
Intermittent: 6 units
This mini-course is a survey of Mexican cinema from its origins in silent film to the present. Some areas of focus will include documentary footage and films of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), films of the Mexican "Golden Age" (1930-1960), and "New Mexican Cinema" from the 1990s forward. We will explore cinema as a window on Mexico's changing social, cultural and political dynamics, and as a way to probe such topics as: changing conceptions of Mexican identity; political critique and revolutionary movements; and urbanization, migration and the "drug war" in contemporary Mexico. **Please Note**: in addition to two weekly class meetings, this course also includes a required weekly film screening at 6:30 on Tuesday evenings.
79-221 Development and Democracy in Latin America
Intermittent: 9 units
"Development" and "democracy" are two keywords in the contemporary world. This course will use the modern history of Latin America and the Caribbean (1800s-present) to examine what these terms have meant in different times and places. Latin America is marked by major bio-cultural diversity; a long history of economic "globalization;" and revolutionary political transformations. In recent years, most Latin American nations have seen economic "growth" and convene peaceful elections, but enormous inequalities persist and environmental problems loom large. We will try to make sense of this reality via historical analysis. In so doing, we will consider long-standing debates over forms of government, economic models, the rights of citizens, the role of government in social welfare, and environmental sustainability. Course materials include scholarly writing, historical documents, current events, music and film/video. The course is discussion-oriented with minimal lecturing.
79-222 Between Revolutions: The Development of Modern Latin America
Intermittent: 9 units
When the Haitian Revolution began in 1789, everything south of the newly created United States was under European colonial rule, slavery was an established institution, and the Catholic Church held considerable power over the daily lives of people. However, when the Mexican Revolution began in 1910, Spanish and Portuguese colonialism had collapsed along with slavery, and the power of the church had greatly diminished. New societal institutions emerged that reflected novel ideas about the role of secular nation-states, "free market" economies, and the meanings of "civilization." This course will use scholarly writings, fiction, film, and video to analyze the profound changes that took place in Latin American society during and between these two important revolutions. We will pay attention to the lives of both elites as well as the "everyday" people who helped to shape the region's history.
79-223 Mexico: From the Aztec Empire to the Drug War
Intermittent: 9 units
This course provides a survey of Mexican history and culture over a variety of periods, from the rise of the Aztec empire, to Spanish conquest and colonization, to national independence, to the Mexican Revolution and contemporary Mexico. A wide range of topics will be addressed, such as: race, ethnicity, and indigeneity; state formation and politics; national identity and the politics of memory; migration and the border; and the drug war. Students will discuss historical and anthropological scholarship on Mexico, but will also consider cultural documents of various kinds, like Mexican music, art, and food.
79-224 Mayan America
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will explore the history and culture of the Maya from before the European conquest of the Americas to the present. After a survey of ancient Mayan society and of the European conquest of Mexico and Central America, we will consider the experience of the indigenous Maya under Spanish colonial rule and under the rule of Latin American nation-states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Finally, we will cover the recent history of political conflict and military repression in Guatemala, the Zapatista uprising in southern Mexico, and increasing Mayan migration to the United States. Drawing upon the varied perspectives of archaeology, cultural anthropology, and social history, this course will explore several recurrent themes in Mayan America, such as: conquest, adaptation and resistance; indigenous political and communal organization; popular religion, prophecy and apocalypse; Mayan cultural and ethnic identity; "tradition" and "modernity"; state violence and human rights; and indigenous political and cultural mobilization at the local, national, and transnational levels.
79-225 West African History in Film
Intermittent: 9 units
West Africa is a vibrant, diverse, and rich region, which has had the largest influence demographically, culturally, socially, and linguistically on the Americas. This course will examine West Africa's history from the pre-colonial to the independence period. It will cover such topics as states vs. stateless societies, urbanization, trans-Saharan trade, Islamization, European interaction, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, colonialism, cash crops, missionaries, nationalism, and independence. Students will understand how this dynamic region changed over time as a result of internal factors, such as state formation, as well as external factors, interaction with Muslim and European traders. Students will also be exposed to the variety of sources used by historians to reconstruct West Africa's rich history. The course will use historical films by some of West Africa's most famous filmmakers, such as Ousman Sembene, to illustrate the diversity of the region and its historical change over time. Course includes two class meetings and mandatory film screenings on Tuesdays from 6:30-9:20pm.
79-226 African History: Earliest Times to 1780
Intermittent: 9 units
A beginning point for this course will be the question: how do historians reconstruct history when few written sources are available? Breaking disciplinary boundaries, the course will draw on linguistics, "climateology," archaeology, and anthropology to reconstruct dynamic social, cultural, political, and economic processes in Africa before the arrival of Europeans and before the availability of written source materials. When written sources are available, the course will interrogate them to illuminate the changes that occurred in African societies during the early period of contact with Europeans. Lastly, by focusing on long-term processes, such as economic specialization, urbanization, and Islamization, the course will begin to put the slave trade in an African-centered perspective.
79-227 African History: Height of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade to the End of Apartheid
Intermittent: 9 units
The course is designed to give students an understanding and appreciation of African history and culture from the "inside out." Though it deals with the period of European expansion in Africa, it is centered on African language/ ethnic groups, villages, and individuals as historical actors who daily make collective and personal decisions to pass down, innovate, and borrow practices, technology, spiritual systems, etc. in the face of social, political, and economic realities. The course is also designed to get students thinking critically about how historians select and interpret sources to construct and reconstruct history at these different levels.
79-229 Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1880-1948
Intermittent: 9 units
This course considers the historical origins of the contemporary Arab-Israeli conflict, beginning with the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of Arab nationalism and Zionism in the late 19th century and emphasizing the period of the British Mandate over Palestine (1920-1948). Students will move beyond the textbooks to explore primary source documents, maps, photographs, biographies and historical testimony. For five weeks in the middle of the semester, students will immerse themselves in an extended role-playing exercise, "The Struggle for Palestine, 1936," an elaborate simulation game linked to Barnard College's "Reacting to the Past" program. Students portraying British examiners, specific Arab and Zionist characters and various journalists will recreate the activities of the 1936 Royal Commission which came to Palestine to investigate the causes of an Arab rebellion and Arab-Jewish strife. This historical reenactment experience constitutes an exciting pedagogical opportunity for delving deeper into the topic material than regular coursework allows. All the role-playing will take place during regular class time, but students should be aware that they will need to devote outside time for preparation and research. Outstanding attendance is also a requirement. Regular classroom activity resumes at the end of the five weeks. The goal of the course is for students to develop a nuanced understanding of the varying goals and priorities of all the actors in Mandate Palestine. Running throughout the course is the question, was peace ever possible?
79-230 Arab-Israeli Conflict and Peace Process since 1948
Intermittent: 9 units
This course begins in 1948 with the establishment of the State of Israel, the Palestinian dispersal and the first of many Arab-Israeli wars, and continues up to the present time. The examination of the many facets of the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israel conflicts is accompanied by attention to the search for peace and its frustration. We will also situate this conflict within the framework of the war, chaos and religious extremism currently consuming the Middle East. The course culminates in an extended role-playing game in which students conduct simulated Arab-Israeli negotiations. For the role-playing we will be partnering with Israeli students from Bar Ilan University: real-time negotiations will take place via Facebook and continue via various social media. The simulation game experience constitutes an exciting pedagogical experiment and an opportunity for delving deeper into the topic material than regular coursework allows.
79-231 American Foreign Policy: 1945-Present
Intermittent: 9 units
This course provides an introduction to the study of U.S. foreign policy. Its main focus will be on problems and possibilities confronting the world during the Cold War as well as global political changes in the post-Cold War era and since 9/11. Important foreign policy strategies which will be discussed include the strategy of containment, NSC-68, the Eisenhower-Dulles "New Look," the Kennedy-Johnson "flexible response," "détente," the democratic peace, and contemporary approaches to combating global terror. Theoretical readings in history and political science will be used as analytic filters to assess both scholarly evaluations of American foreign policy and key historical episodes.
79-232 Arabian Peninsula Environmental History
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is ONLY offered at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. This course will look at the history of the Arabian Peninsula from a fresh perspective, examining human/environmental interactions over a long stretch of time. In contrast to the way that Arabian history is typically taught in academia, this course will take the pre-Islamic period of Arabian history (al-jahiliyya) as seriously as the post-Islamic period, and will focus on continuities between the two periods as much as discontinuities. What is more, while conventional histories of the Arabian Peninsula focus on political and religious affairs, this course will try to understand Arabian history on a deeper level by focusing on the lifeways of the Arabian people, including pastoralism, oasis "bustan garden" agriculture, fishing and pearling, and shifting patterns of long-distance trade. What is more this course will draw heavily from material from other disciplines, especially medical sciences, to better understand patterns of change over time. Finally, this course will examine to what degree these older patterns of human/landscape interactions are still valid for the Arabian Peninsula today, which has undergone a transformation almost unparalleled in world history due to the discovery natural gas and oil.
79-233 The United States and the Middle East since 1945
Intermittent: 9 units
This course begins by introducing students to the Middle Eastern priorities and policies which the US inherited from the British in the aftermath of the Second World War. The focus then moves to American interests and involvement in the region from the Cold War through today, with special attention to recurrent historical themes. Topics include the US role in the Arab-Israeli conflict and peace process, the role of oil, politics and conflicts in the Persian Gulf, the impact of 9/11 on American foreign policy in the Middle East, and selected case studies of US political and military intervention there. Readings and discussion progress with a dual goal in mind: to understand American foreign policy interests in the Middle East, and to understand the forces and nuances endemic to the region itself. Students will learn how to analyze primary source documents, such as presidential speeches and UN resolutions. The course culminates in a role-playing exercise in which students must establish foreign policy goals and strive top achieve them.
79-235 Caribbean Cultures
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will examine the cultures and societies of the Caribbean focusing on their colonial past, their current positioning in the world, their social structure, cultural patterns and current transnationalism. Using social history, film and music we will explore the topics of race, class, family, gender, religion, national identity and underdevelopment. Comparative research projects will provide concrete instances of the differences and similarities between the Anglo-Caribbean, Franco-Caribbean, and Hispanic Caribbean. This course is open to all students.
79-237 Comparative Slavery
Intermittent: 9 units
The past few years have seen a proliferation of major motion pictures about enslavement, particularly Django and Twelve Years a Slave. They have all depicted enslavement in the context of the US South. This course will examine the enslavement of Africans and people of African descent from a comparative perspective, investigating labor organization on rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, and indigo plantations, gender, class, as well as the experiences of enslaved children in the Americas, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Students will learn to critically read and analyze secondary sources, conduct independent research in primary sources. We will also view and discuss different representations of enslaved societies in popular media, including film.
79-240 Development of American Culture
Intermittent: 9 units
This is an introductory survey of American history from colonial times to the present. The course focuses on cultural history instead of the more traditional emphasis on presidents, wars, and memorizing facts or timelines. The major theme of the course is the changing meaning of freedom over three centuries. Required readings include several short books, historical documents, and a study of the concept of freedom. There is no textbook; background facts and events are covered in lectures to provide students with context needed to think about and understand America's cultural history. Assignments include exams and essays.
79-241 African American History: Africa to the Civil War
Intermittent: 9 units
The African American experience had deep roots in the rapid globalization of the world's people during the transatlantic slave trade. Like people of European, Asian, and Latino/Latina descent, Africans were part of the early Great Migrations of people from the Old World to the New. Unlike other ethnic and nationality groups, however, African people arrived in chains and swiftly acquired the legal status of "slaves for life." Was their enslavement inevitable? Was their transformation into commodities complete? Were they able to form viable families, communities, and movements to topple the institution of human bondage? Did they find dependable white allies? Did they Africanize American culture, politics, and economics? How did some 500,000 of these African people become free (some significant property holders) before the Civil War? Focusing on the development of African and African American life from the beginning of the colonial era through the late antebellum years, this course will explore these and many other questions in the lives of the earliest generations of African people on American soil. Based upon a variety of assigned texts, primary and secondary sources, and lectures, students will become familiar with a wide range of intellectual debates in African American history; write a series of short analytical essays; and advance their own well-argued and well-documented analyses of major controversies in both popular and scholarly interpretations of early African and African American life in the United States.
79-242 African American History: Reconstruction to the Present
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores changes in the African American experience from the end of the Civil War to the Age of Barack H. Obama. The course emphasizes transformations in both inter- and intra-race relations; economic mobility as well as economic inequality; and forms of political engagement and grassroots movements for social change. In Part I, the course opens with an examination of the notion of a "Post-Racial Society" in the United States. This idea emerged in the wake of the Modern Black Freedom Movement and persists to this day as the 21st century unfolds. Part II locates the roots of 20th century black life and history in the emancipation of enslaved people in the years after the Civil War. This segment of the course will not only give close attention to the meaning of emancipation and freedom for black people, but also charts the rise of a new Jim Crow social order by World War I. Third and most important, this course will illuminate the transformation of African American culture, politics, and community under the impact of the 20th century Great Migration; the rise of the urban-industrial working class; increasing residential segregation; growth and expansion of the middle class; and the fluorescence of the Modern Black Liberation Movement. Students will compare the dynamics of the contemporary Black Lives Matter Movement with earlier 20th century grassroots social and political movements in African American and U.S. history. Finally, based upon a mix of primary and secondary sources and lectures, students will examine a wide range of intellectual debates in African American history; write a series of short analytical essays; and establish their own unique interpretation of key issues in Black History.
79-243 The Civil War in American Memory
Intermittent: 6 units
The American Civil War remains among the most cherished and fought over stories in American history. This class explores those debates. Was the war fought over slavery? Was the Confederate cause noble? Did the North oppose slavery? Why do Americans flock to reenact the Civil War? What does it mean to fly the Confederate flag? Tackling ongoing debates in the news today, including recent events in Charleston, we'll trace the roots of those events back to the American Civil War. And we'll strive to understand why the war continues to be one of the most defining moments in U.S. history - 150 years later.
79-244 Women in American History
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is a survey. It examines U.S. history through the eyes of women and gender. It begins in the colonial era (1600s) and runs chronologically to the present. It covers topics such as witchcraft, the story of Pocahontas, women's work, motherhood, slavery, and much more. We will look at the lives of individual women, as well as trends among women, paying attention to questions of race and class. At the same time, we will explore changing concepts of gender, meaning ideas about what women are or should be. Finally, the course asks: how different does American history look when we factor in women and gender?
79-245 Capitalism and Individualism in American Culture
Intermittent: 9 units
This small discussion course traces ideas about individualism and capitalism in the U.S., from colonial times to the present. We will focus on three main themes: 1) the relationship between capitalism, work, and identity; 2) changing definitions of success and failure; and 3) the historical origins of students' attitudes toward 1 & 2. In short, we will study the economics and emotions of the American dream: how class, race, gender, occupation, and ambition shape our identities. Readings include "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin," studies by Alexis de Tocqueville and Max Weber, writings of Frederick Douglass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Henry Thoreau, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Andrew Carnegie's classic essay "Gospel of Wealth," Arthur Miller's "Death of a Salesman," and Malcolm Gladwell's "Outliers." Grading is based upon a readings journal, participation in discussion, three short essays and a longer final paper.
79-246 Industrial America
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the transformation of America into an urban industrial society during the 19th and 20th centuries. The transformation of work, culture, and politics will receive close attention, but the course will primarily focus around how workers defined their own labor and changes in the culture of work over time. This course will investigate how race, class, and gender informed workplace relations as well as how immigration and migration changed the nature of American work. Through lecture, discussion, and three short writing assignments we will uncover how workers defined America.
79-247 The Civil War Era: 1848-1877
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines America's pivotal middle period, a period of rising sectional tensions, bloody civil war, slavery's end, and protracted debates about the promise and limits of equality. The first third of the class traces the causes of the war, the middle third dwells on the devastating war itself, and the final third explores the aftermath of the war, when Americans clashed over how to reunite and over what the meaning of freedom for four million emancipated slaves ought to be. Sometimes known as "America's unfinished revolution," the Civil War continues to resonate in American society today. The course concludes by considering current questions such as flying the confederate flag, slave reparations, and others.
79-249 20th/21st Century U.S. History
Intermittent: 9 units
[Note: students who have already taken this course under its former title 79-249, 20th Century U.S. History may not enroll.] The twentieth century marked the rise of the United States as a global power. By the end of the century, the United States had achieved economic, military, and political dominance. The United States also made great strides in expanding political and civil rights for workers, women, African-Americans, and gays and lesbians. This course explores the cultural implications of these developments on the generations of American people who came of age in the twentieth century. It assesses both the triumphs and tribulations of twentieth-century life. We will analyze the continuities, contradictions, and conflicts in American history, especially in regard to the nation's dueling political ideologies: conservatism and liberalism. Special attention will be given to the evolving relationship among the state, the corporate sector, and ordinary people. Topics include: the Progressive Era, the Great Depression, World War II, the Cold War, Civil Rights, Vietnam, and the New Conservatism.
79-250 Running for President: Campaigns & Elections in History of American Presidency
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the history of presidential campaigns, focusing on the institutions, individuals, and events involved in such contests. Using a variety of texts, ranging from debate transcripts, journalistic accounts, and scholarly works, students will analyze and understand how campaigns have come to take their current form. Though focusing on campaigns in the 20th and 21st centuries, earlier, formative contests will also be discussed, allowing for discussion of how more recent campaigns compare to historical ones. Since the 2016 General Election will take place during the course, students will have the unique chance to analyze the current contest in both a fresh and historical perspective.
79-251 India/America: Democracy, Diversity, Development
Intermittent: 9 units
India and the United States, two of the world's largest democracies, have long been interconnected-culturally, economically, and politically. From yoga and bhangra to outsourcing and nuclear politics, Indo-American relations have become increasingly important to both countries. This course will focus on connections between the United States and India in the twentieth century. Specific topics will include the Indian American struggle to gain American citizenship; American involvement in the Indian independence movement; the influence of Gandhian nonviolent civil disobedience on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the American civil rights movement; Indo-American relations during the Cold War; American economic aid to India; outsourcing and other recent economic linkages; the history of Indian students in the United States; and cultural connections including food, dress, music, dance, and Bollywood/Hollywood.
79-252 Exploring the American Century: United States History After 1945
Intermittent: 9 units
[Note: students who have already taken this course under former title, Recent U.S. History, 1945-Present, may not enroll.] Henry Luce, publisher of TIME magazine, labelled the 20th Century the "American Century," a phrase that took on increasing prominence with the economic and cultural boom of the United States in the decades following World War II. This course examines the political, social, and cultural history of the United States after 1945, seeking to answer the question: "How did we get from there to here?" Readings and class discussion will examine political and economic transformation, social movements, and intellectual debates over American identity and purpose within the context of new technologies, influential popular culture, shifting demographics, and international context. Primary sources, scholarly secondary readings, and period films and media will provide lenses into the broad forces, institutional structures, and lived experiences of recent American history.
79-253 American Massacres in History and Memory
Intermittent: 6 units
In this course we will investigate 19th century massacres in the American West, examining the causes and aftermath of violence between competing communities divided by ethnicity, class, religion, gender, and civil war. By the end of the class we will have examined some of America's most tragic and best-known massacres - from the Alamo (1836) to Little Big Horn (1876) to Wounded Knee (1890) - and will have achieved a better understanding of their historical contexts and influence, as well as their transnational implications and repercussions for society today.
79-255 Irish History
Intermittent: 6 units
This course surveys Irish history from the earliest human settlements until the present day, with emphasis on the period since the sixteenth century. Our main objective is to understand the sources of conflict in modern Ireland. In order to do that, however, we look at a number of topics such as the role of religion in Irish society; the causes of population growth, movement, and decline; changing forms of protest; and the formation of rival myths of the Irish past and its meaning.
79-256 20th Century Germany
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will trace the evolution of German politics, society, and culture from 1914 through 2000. It will consider the causes and consequences of the huge upheavals and catastrophes that Germany went through in these decades: the First World War, political revolution, National Socialism, the Second World War, the Cold War division of Germany and Germany's reunification. A major theme of the course will be Germans' artistic responses (in visual arts, fiction, and film) to their country's turmoil, crimes, and disasters in the 20th century. In addition to a survey history, students will read several novels, a memoir, eyewitness accounts, and one historical monograph. Writing requirements will include two 7-page essays on readings and a take-home final.
79-257 Germany and the Second World War
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the Second World War from the perspective of the country that was central to it in every way. The course will cover: Hitler's ideology, war plans, and military strategy; the military/technological history of the War in Europe and North Africa; the role of the SS; the Holocaust; the occupation of Europe and Resistance movements; the political, social, and economic history of the Third Reich, including popular opinion, the German Resistance, and the use of slave labor in factories and on farms. Readings will include historical studies, a novel, and a memoir/diary.
79-258 French History: From the Revolution to De Gaulle
Intermittent: 9 units
This survey course looks at French society and culture from the period after the French Revolution (roughly 1815) to the Nazi invasion of 1940. We first look at the multiple impacts of the Revolution on French society. We try to understand some of the lasting features of nineteenth and early-twentieth century France by studying the lives of different social groups including workers, peasants, and members of the elites. We follow the continuing problem of French political instability in the nineteenth century, trying to understand the deep rifts that divided different groups of French people from one another. We look at the devastating impacts of World War One and the Great Depression, and end with the collapse of France in 1940. Coursework is based on the use of works of fiction, film, personal memoirs, and art as well as historians' writings. Written work includes papers and in class tests.
79-259 France During World War II
Intermittent: 9 units
This course surveys the history of French society, economy, and culture in the years 1939-1945 focusing on problems that the war and German occupation presented. Understanding life under the German Occupation and the collaborationist government in Vichy also requires us to look back at major political, social and economic conditions of the 1930s that divided the French people. We use film and personal memoirs as well as recent historical studies to recreate a sense of life during the war, and try to answer such questions as: What accounts for the French military collapse of 1940? Which groups of French men and women benefitted from collaboration with Germany? How did France's collaboration in the Holocaust come about? We also consider how the French people have tried to come to terms with their wartime experience since the 1940s. This course is open to all students. Students can access films both through the video collection in Hunt Library and through evening screenings [days and times to be determined].
79-261 The Last Emperors: Chinese History and Society, 1600-1900
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is an introduction to late-imperial "Chinese" history and society with a focus on the Qing dynasty (1644-1912). We begin by examining the Qing not just as the last of China's imperial dynasties but also as an early-modern, multi-ethnic empire that included Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang. In fact, China's "last emperors" were actually Manchus from northeast Asia. Secondly we investigate the social, economic, intellectual and demographic developments that transformed late-imperial China prior to the coming of the West. Thirdly, we examine Qing responses to a string of nineteenth-century disruptions, including but not limited to western imperialism, that threatened to not only end the dynasty but also challenged the very tenants of Chinese civilization. Lastly, we will look at the fall of China's imperial system, the end of empire, and the post-imperial struggle to reformulate the state and re-imagine society for the twentieth century.
79-262 Modern China: From the Birth of Mao ... to Now
Intermittent: 9 units
[Note: students who have already taken this course under its former title 79-262, Modern China, may not enroll.] This course is an introduction to major themes in twentieth-century Chinese history, including the transition from empire to nation, revolution, social change and modernization, western and Japanese imperialism, the rise of the party-state, Chinese socialism, economic liberalization and the so-called "Chinese Dream." The first half of the class is devoted to the period between the fall of the imperial system and the founding of the People's Republic of China (1911-1949). If the victory of the Chinese Communist Party and development of the socialist state are to be considered in historical context, it is necessary to first understand the political, cultural, economic and intellectual currents that immediately preceded them. During the second half of the course, we will examine the Maoist period (1949-1976). We will investigate the Chinese Communist Party as both a state-building institution and an engine of social transformation, and consider the tensions these dual roles produced. Finally, we will look at the Reform Period (1978-present), and reflect on a newly robust China's attempts to come to terms with its own recent past and what the consequences might be for both China and the world.
79-263 Mao and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Intermittent: 9 units
TBA
79-264 Tibet and China: History and Propaganda
Intermittent: 6 units
[Note: students who have already taken this course under its former title 79-264, Tibet in History and Imagination, may not enroll.] This course is an introduction to the "Tibet Question," the dispute over whether Tibet should be part of China, an independent nation-state, or, as the current Dalai Lama now advocates, something in between. "History" often serves as the battleground on which competing visions of the nation are fought - who should be included and excluded, where "natural" boundaries begin and end. This almost always requires a process of simplification in which inconvenient details are forgotten or repurposed in the service of national agendas. The "Tibet Question" is a telling example. In this class, we investigate the historical relationship between "China" and "Tibet" from the 13th century through the present, and note the ways advocates on both sides of the "Tibet Question" have constructed historical narratives (propaganda) in support of their political positions. We will also discuss the prospects for a political solution and consider the lessons the "Tibet Question" may hold for understanding other outstanding "historical" disputes.
79-265 Russian History: From the First to the Last Tsar
Intermittent: 9 units
This course covers a broad sweep of Russian history beginning with the first settlements of tribal nomads in the ninth century and ending with the fall of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty in 1917. Our course profiles how the Russian state was formed and how its territory expanded to become a mighty empire. Over the centuries, we make the acquaintance of Mongol marauders, greedy princes, and peasant rebels, as well as Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, and the long succession of reformers and reactionaries who occupied the Russian throne. We explore terrorism, general strikes, and development of the revolutionary movement that ultimately brought down the Tsar in 1917.
79-266 Russian History: From Communism to Capitalism
Intermittent: 9 units
This course covers a broad sweep of Russian history from the socialist revolution in 1917 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. Spanning almost a century of upheaval and transformation, the course examines the October revolution in 1917, the ruthless power struggles of the 1920s, the triumph of Stalin, the costly industrialization and collectivization drives, the battle against fascism, and the "wild west" capitalism and collapse of the social welfare state. The course provides essential background for anyone interested in understanding Russia's place in the world today and its relationship with the West.
79-267 The Soviet Union in World War II: Military, Political, and Social History
Intermittent: 9 units
On June 22, 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. German troops quickly reached the hills above Moscow, surrounded Leningrad in the longest running siege in modern history, devastated the country's economy, and slaughtered millions of Soviet civilians. Over 26 million Soviet citizens died in the war. Eventually, the Red Army came back from defeat to free the occupied territories and drive Hitler's army back to Berlin. Using history, films, poetry, veterans' accounts, documentaries, and journalism, this course surveys the great military battles as well as life on the home front. It highlights the rise of fascism, the Stalinist purges of the Red Army, and the Nazi massacres of Soviet Jews, peasants, and partisans. Occasional required evening film screenings.
79-268 World War I: The Twentieth Century's First Catastrophe
Intermittent: 9 units
This course offers a comprehensive retrospective of the First World War (1914-1918). The course will cover the diplomatic, military, political and social history of the war. Guiding questions will be: How did a containable crisis between Austria-Hungary and Serbia become the most murderous war Europe had ever experienced? How did the war spill over into the Middle East? Why did the US enter the war? Why did every General Staff follow unimaginative military strategies that turned the war into a bloody horror for soldiers? What was the role of women and women's rights on the home front? How did the war lead to two major revolutions and the collapse of four powerful empires? Readings will include five or six outstanding new historical studies as well as internet search/reading in preparation for class debates. Students will write three 7-8 page essays and participate in two debates.
79-269 London and the Birth of Modern Britain, 1800 to the Present
Intermittent: 6 units
London is a city of contradictions. Home to some of the richest institutions in our globalized world — particularly The City's banks — London is also one prominent site of the cultural, economic, and political critique of graffiti artist Banksy. London is the home of beautiful and iconic buildings with storied legacies as well as the multicultural slums of the East End. How did this city of contradictions develop? What does London tell us about the broader development of Great Britain, or the particular challenges wrought by urbanization? This course examines the history of London from its foundation during the Roman Empire to the present day. In particular, the course will focus on how London became the center of financial, political, and cultural power during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but also home to problems of poverty, sanitation, and crime. Using a range of sources including literature, memoirs, and newspapers, students will gain a deeper appreciation for the history of one of the world's greatest cities, as well as how London contributed to Great Britain's overall development.
79-271 Russian Studies Topics
Intermittent: 6 units
A1- Literary Culture of 19th Century Russia The purpose of the course is to give students an introduction to the cultural environment of the Imperial Russia through the works of major 19th century Russian writers. We will read and analyze some masterpieces of Russian fiction, including works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and Chekhov. Emphasis will be made on how these brilliant classics reflected turbulent history of the 19th century Russia. A2- Literary Culture of 20th Century Russia This mini-course focuses on Russian prose and poetry of the early 20th century. Readings will include the "proletarian" writings of Maxim Gorky, "symbolism" of Alexander Blok, "futurism" and "modernism" of Vladimir Mayakovsky, as well as works of some other authors. We will discuss issues important to the 20th century Russian Cultural History such as the role of intelligentsia in Russian Revolution, the content and method of Russian decadence, symbolism, and modernism, as well as imprisonment, liberation, and exile that became so important for many writers and poets.
79-273 Jews and Muslims in History: From the Time of Muhammad to the Present
Intermittent: 9 units
What is the history of Muslim-Jewish relations beyond the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the images of violence in the Middle East that permeate the media? The overarching goal of this course is to explore this question through close study of the history of Jews and Muslims who lived as neighbors, in cooperation as well as in conflict in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, from the rise of Islam in the seventh century to the present day. Our sources will include works of scholarship, primary source texts such as religious queries and government documents, journalistic materials, memoirs, and films.
79-274 Russian Culture: Literature, Music, Art, Theater
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will focus on the most significant historical events in 19th and 20th century Russian societies, and track their influence on the development of Imperial, Soviet and post-Soviet culture and cultural institutions. Students will learn about famous giants of Russian literature, painting, music, and drama who gained global recognition. The course, which includes secondary readings, primary documents, and films, will allow students to achieve a critical understanding of contemporary Russia.
79-275 Introduction to Global Studies
Spring: 9 units
"Globalization" is a familiar term that is often used to invoke the idea that places around the world are rapidly becoming more interconnected. This is so, but it is also true that this is far being from a simple or harmonious process. Rather, "globalization" involves a wide range of uneven and disputed cultural, political, economic, and social developments that often influence one another but vary markedly in their significance, impact, and intensity. Economic crisis, impoverishment, rising inequality, environmental degradation, pandemic disease, and militant ethnic, religious, and nationalist movements are just as much a part of the contemporary global landscape as are technological innovation, instantaneous communication, shifts in the global division of labor, the creation of new wealth and knowledge, the promotion and defense of human rights, and the rise of cosmopolitan values and perspectives. This course introduces you to important ways of thinking about globalization and will acquaint you with the kinds of research, evidence, and information upon which these kinds of thinking rely. It serves as a foundation for further study of the contemporary world in advanced Global Studies courses.
79-276 Beyond the Border
Intermittent: 9 units
In this course we will consider the place of the border in the making of the Americas. Our explorations will be far-ranging: from the initial encounters of Columbus with indigenous Taino, to contemporary debates over migration and border control; from the making of borderlands to the shaping of border identities; from history to ethnography, literature, music, visual arts and film. The first part of the course will focus on the ramifications of the conquest and colonization of the Americas, and specifically on the power of colonial narratives used to inscribe borders and frontiers in the colonial imagination—to define "civilization" and "barbarism," self and other. After a discussion of indigenous counter-narratives, we will move on to the second part of this course, an exploration of how what is now known as the southwestern United States and northern Mexico were transformed from borderlands into bordered lands, over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the final part of the course, we will move through and beyond the U.S.-Mexico border, to consider how "border thinking" helps to illuminate the frontiers of language, race, ethnicity, nationalism, and religion in the contemporary Americas.
79-279 Comparative Study of Nationalism Case Studies: USA, Arabia, South Africa
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is offered only at Carnegie Mellon's campus in Qatar. This course, dealing with a significant historical question of the past century, will enable students to develop a deeper understanding of the origins of many contemporary states as well as problems in former colonies. Participants will work individually or in teams on research papers pertaining to their chosen countries.
79-280 Brewing Revolution? Coffee and Social Change from Adam Smith to Starbucks
Intermittent: 6 units
First domesticated in the highlands of Ethiopia, coffee has traversed most of the world, often driving profound social, environmental, and political change. Today, coffee is the most valuable internationally traded commodity after oil. Coffee is big business dominated by corporations like Nestle and Starbucks, but coffee also provides livelihoods for millions of family farmers in places as diverse as Colombia, Uganda, and Papua New Guinea. Beginning with the French/Haitian Revolutions and ending with the Fair Trade Movement, this mini course will use episodes in the history of coffee production and consumption to gain insights on some of today's most pressing problems related to economic inequality, social change, and environmental sustainability. Course meetings will emphasize group discussions; assignments will include journals and short quizzes.
79-281 Introduction to Religion
Intermittent: 9 units
Religion can be viewed from the "outside," through the academic lenses of history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, etc., and from the "inside," listening to the experiences and reflections of those who practice various faiths. The course will examine major religious traditions from several perspectives, and begin to explore such topics as the relationship between religion and science, faith and reason, and religion in public life. For students with a general interest in religion as well as those contemplating a religious studies minor.
79-282 Europe and the World since 1800
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will introduce students to topics of historical and contemporary relevance in European society and culture from the nineteenth-century to the present. The course will focus on issues of national and cultural identity with special attention to the situation of inhabitants who have been considered outsiders or "others." We shall examine Europe's place in shaping debates—both new and old—about topics such as: religious, ethnic, and national identity; immigration to and within Europe; Islamophobia; antisemitism, and marginalization of the Roma. Throughout the course we shall also consider the shifting meanings that have been assigned to the concept of Europe as well as how these meanings have been contested. In addition to class lectures, students will become familiar with these themes through the reading and discussion of historical and anthropological texts, current political and cultural debates, music and film.
79-285 Islam in the United States
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is offered only at Carnegie Mellon's campus in Qatar. As is well known, America has become a land of great religious diversity, and Islam in particular. Appreciating this issue helps appreciate the dynamism of the US and the religion of Islam. To a degree, however, this is both an old and new phenomenon. The course will explore the many facets of Islamic history and life, the process of its growth as well as the challenges and issues that American Muslims of different colours and backgrounds face in a vibrant plural democratic society.
79-286 Archaeology: Understanding the Ancient World
Intermittent: 6 units
This course will familiarize students with archaeology as a field, including the techniques and methods archaeologists use to test hypotheses using archaeological data. Secondary objectives are to provide students with a framework for understanding the many archaeological sites that are open to the public across the United States and around the world and to explore problems having to do with the method and practice of archaeological investigation.
79-287 The Mummy's Curse: Uses and Abuses of Archaeology
Intermittent: 6 units
Popular representations of ancient civilizations often present fantastical versions of the past. This course will examine popular topics such as cursed mummies, ancient aliens, lost cities, and other alternative archaeologies to understand how they intersect with academic understandings of archaeology and human history. Students will explore how archaeologists and others answer questions about the past, and how we can evaluate competing interpretations.
79-288 Bananas, Baseball, and Borders: Latin America and the United States
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the tumultuous and paradoxical relationship between Latin America and the United States from the early 1800s to the present, with an emphasis on Central America and the Caribbean during the Cold War era (1945-1989) and its aftermath (1989-2014). During the Cold War years, the United States intervened frequently in Latin America; following the Cold War, a new geopolitics emerged shaped by trade policies, immigration, and illicit drug trades. We will study relationships between U.S. and Latin American governments, but we will also consider many other kinds of people and institutions including artists, athletes, businessmen, coffee farmers, consumers, corporations, Hollywood studios, journalists, migrant workers, musicians, rebels, scientists, and tourists. We will learn about these people via readings, historical documents, film, music, and video.
79-289 Animal Planet: An Environmental History of People and Animals
Intermittent: 6 units
Why do modern societies go to great lengths to protect some animals and slaughter others? How do people use animals to demarcate boundaries among themselves and between "humans" and "nature?" What are the environmental ramifications of domestication? What role do animals play in visual culture? These are some of the questions that we will seek to answer as we explore the role of human—animal relationships in making the modern world (ca. 1400-present). We will pay particular attention to visual representations of animals across time and cultures. Evaluation will be based on active participation in class discussions, submission of weekly field notes, and a final assignment focused on visual representations of people and animals.
79-290 The Slave Passage: From West Africa to the Americas
Intermittent: 6 units
"The Slave Passage" begins among flourishing, technologically advanced, and globally connected regions of Western Africa before the advent of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. It tells the painful story of African captives during the Middle Passage, piecing together the historical record to recognize their suffering aboard the slaving vessels and their multiple strategies of resistance. Students will study slave narratives, slave ship logs, and autobiographies of former enslaved people, as well as analyze films and theater performances depicting the Middle Passage and New World enslavement.
79-291 Globalization in East African History
Intermittent: 6 units
Most Americans would identify slavery and colonialism when thinking of Africa's relationship to the rest of the world. While these two institutions have been critically important in shaping Africa's present condition and recent history, they only constitute a fraction of Africa's past and its interaction with the wider world. This course traces globalization to ancient times and seeks to understand it from an African perspective.
79-293 Inward Odyssey
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is ONLY offered at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. Inward Odyssey will explore world history by examining it through the outward-looking eyes of travel writers, on the assumption that travelogues, though supposedly written about the "other," in fact provide crucial insights about the mindset of the culture that produced them, and often serve as a vehicle for cultural self-exploration or even self-criticism. In terms of content, this course is intended to overlap with World History, Islam and the European World, and US-Arab Encounters. However, this course is intended to be a skills course, designed not to teach students about specific historical periods, but rather to give students the tools they need to conduct their own critical explorations into the historical past.
79-294 Islam on the Main Street in the West since the 18th Century
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is offered only at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. This introductory course to the humanities and social sciences through the prism of religion and faith, aims at: 1. analyzing the interaction between these central disciplines and at appreciating the significance of Western and Islamic humanism and applying it to the present context of cultural globalism, confrontation and dialogue; 2. becoming familiar with some important literary texts of the modern era; 3. learning how to articulate one's thoughts in a cogent manner. The discussion will stress how religion, a powerful instrument of socialization may, under some circumstances, foster intolerance and inequality or openmindedness and tolerance. Understanding this process may lead to a new appreciation of classical Western writings.
79-295 Race Relations in the Atlantic World
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is an analysis of the dynamics of race relations in the Atlantic world through the intersections of race, gender and social class. We will explore the socio-historical and present interactions of "the races" and the construction of racial identity in a variety of circumstances and cultures. We will also use film, music, literature, and concrete examples from world events to examine the asymmetrical power relations that have developed between populations living in close proximity. An important aspect of the course will be the deconstruction of whiteness, blackness, otherness, and the norm in the context of group interaction and the distribution of power. The focus of this class will be on specific examples from North America, the Caribbean, and Latin America.
79-297 Dilemmas and Controversies in Anthropology
Intermittent: 9 units
Anthropology is poised at the intersection of art and science. Like scientists, anthropologists collect and analyze data, but it is data gained through relationships forged with and by human beings situated in complex historical, social, political, and economic contexts. In this course, we will investigate the particular approach anthropologists take to research, focusing on the methods that anthropologists use, and the various ethical and technical dilemmas that they face. Though focused on anthropology, the subject matter of this course is relevant for thinking through the moral and practical implications of research more generally. We explore some key controversies that have arisen around anthropological research, and students are encouraged to think deeply and analytically about the particular kinds of knowledge that research generates and to reflect critically on anthropology's strengths and limitations. Note: This is a discussion-based course, where your success is contingent upon thoughtful and active participation.
79-298 Mobile Phones & Social Media in Development & Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal
Intermittent: 6 units
This course will examine the ways that social media and the ubiquity of mobile phones with good cameras and Internet access are changing how information about development and human rights is gathered, analyzed, and disseminated. We will ask: What are the new possibilities opened up by these technologies? What are the potential pitfalls—e.g., privacy concerns, risks to sources, or the false confidence that we are now able to know everything about what is happening in the world? What are the biggest technical, cultural, and political challenges in this domain? Who is responding to these challenges and what are they doing? And perhaps most importantly, to what extent can advances in technology ameliorate problems that are fundamentally political in nature?
79-299 From Newton to the Nuclear Bomb: History of Science, 1750-1950
Intermittent: 9 units
This course provides an introduction to the history of modern science in Europe and North America, from the Enlightenment to the mid-twentieth century. Our goal is to understand scientific theories and practices on their own terms and as products of their own contexts, rather than as a progression of developments moving inevitably toward the present. The course seeks to explore both how and why science has become the dominant way of knowing about the natural world, as well as how scientific activity intersects with the history of religion, war, commerce, and the state. Most of the reading will be from primary sources, likely including Darwin, Einstein, McClintock, Laplace, Joule, Lovelace, and Paley.
79-300 History of American Public Policy
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will describe and analyze aspects of the development of public policy in the United States from the colonial era to the present, with a focus on the post-Civil War era. For the purposes of this course, public policy will be defined as the making of rules and laws and their implementation by government: 1) in response to the failure of private actors (i.e., markets) to reach desirable outcomes; 2) to regulate markets to influence their outcomes; or 3) in an attempt to achieve a particular normative vision of what society ought to be like. This course assumes that the public policy landscape is complex but still comprehensible given the proper set of analytical frameworks and appropriate historical background. Particular emphasis will be placed on: changing views about the authority of the government to intervene in economic and social issues; the best way to balance individual and collective interests; and the variability within society of the life courses of individuals. Topics to be covered include: immigration, health care and health insurance, and education.
79-301 History of Surveillance: From the Plantation to Edward Snowden
Intermittent: 6 units
Edward Snowden's revelations about the extent of the U.S. National Security Agency's data collection infrastructure have made surveillance one of the most controversial political issues of our time. In this course, we will place the NSA's actions in context, examining the long history of surveillance in the United States. We will begin with the 18th-century plantation "overseer," who was charged with ensuring the productivity and obedience of slaves under his watch. We will then move on to explore the emergence of commercial surveillance in the 19th century, which sought to gather intelligence on the credit worthiness and moral worthiness of businessmen in a rapidly growing, and increasingly impersonal, economy. Next, we will examine the shifting focus of surveillance from the late 19th century to the present, as it expanded from immigrants and criminals to include industrial workers, political radicals, civil rights activists (most notably Martin Luther King), the poor, and ultimately, all of us. Today, anyone who has a cell phone in their pocket, surfs the Internet, keeps up with friends through social networks, makes purchases with a credit card, uses membership cards, travels, or even just spends time in public spaces ought to assume that their movements, purchasing habits, communication metadata, social connections, and Internet browsing histories are being recorded, stored and analyzed for a variety of governmental and commercial purposes. In the final week of the course, we will debate the implications of these incursions into our public and private lives.
79-302 Drone Warfare and Killer Robots: Ethics, Law, Politics, and Strategy
Intermittent: 9 units
Unmanned aerial vehicles (commonly referred to as drones) have become a central feature of the United States' global counterterrorism strategy since September 11, 2001, and autonomous weapons systems (which some critics call "killer robots") are increasingly being used in conflict and law enforcement. According to proponents, drones and autonomous weapons systems are much safer than manned systems (because there is no operator to be injured or killed), so accurate that they can be used to target individuals and detect threats in real time, and efficient and inexpensive enough to be used for long-term surveillance and protection missions around the globe. According to critics, the use of such systems is often highly problematic because it is illegal to target individuals outside of formally declared war and because autonomous weapons systems can obfuscate historically accepted chains of military/police accountability and responsibility. Further, in the context of drone warfare, hidden costs are underreported in the mainstream media (including high civilian casualties, the intense psychosocial trauma inflicted upon communities that experience drone strikes, and the psychological impact on drone operators who witness the damage they cause through a computer monitor thousands of miles away). This course will evaluate these issues through the lenses of law, ethics, politics, history, and military strategy. The final project will involve crafting policy recommendations on drone warfare and autonomous weapons systems (both for military and law enforcement use) to the new president.
79-303 Pittsburgh and the Transformation of Modern Urban America
Intermittent: 6 units
This course will focus on the transformations, both negative and positive, of Pittsburgh and the Pittsburgh region in the period from 1945 through the present. It will explore the following themes: the redevelopment of the city in the Pittsburgh Renaissances, the collapse of the steel industry and the development of an Eds/Meds service economy, and the city's changing economy, demography, and neighborhoods. In addition, environmental conditions and change will be examined.
79-304 African Americans in Pittsburgh
Intermittent: 6 units
This course will examine the development of Pittsburgh's African American community from the Great Depression and World War II through the era of deindustrialization during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The course will emphasize not only the ways that a variety of external socioeconomic, cultural, and political forces shaped the history of black people in western Pennsylvania, but also the diverse strategies that African Americans devised to give meaning to their own lives and how these changed over time. Students will read both primary and secondary accounts of Pittsburgh's African American history; write short analytical papers on specific topics or themes; and engage in regular classroom discussions of assigned readings.
79-305 Moneyball Nation: Data in American Life
Intermittent: 9 units
From conducting clinical trials and evaluating prisoners' parole cases to drafting professional ballplayers, we increasingly make decisions using mathematical concepts and models. This course surveys the development of-and resistance to-such tools by grounding them in the recent cultural history of the United States. Focusing on baseball, medicine, and the law, we'll explore how and why Americans have come to believe mathematical and computational methods can solve complicated problems, even in seemingly unrelated moral, political, and social domains. The course encourages students to think critically about the wider implications of these transformations by situating their development historically.
79-306 Fact into Film: Translating History into Cinema
Intermittent: 9 units
From the very beginning, film has provided a window into the past. But how useful are the images we see through that window? For every person who reads a work of history, thousands will see a film on the same subject. But who will learn more? Can written history and filmed history perform the same tasks? Should we expect them to do so? How are these two historical forms related? How can they complement each other? This course will draw examples from across the history of film in order to examine how the medium of film impacts our understanding of facts and events, the ways that film transfers those facts to the screen, and how that process affects the the creation of historical discourse. Films may include such titles as The Fall of the Roman Empire, The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Saving Private Ryan, World Trade Center, Enemy at the Gates, Lagaan and Hero.
79-307 Religion and Politics in the Middle East
Intermittent: 9 units
This course looks at the historic relationship among Islam, Judaism and Christianity and what they have to say about the nature of government, the state's treatment of religious minorities, and relations among states in the Middle East. We will consider the impact of religion on domestic and foreign policy in selected Middle Eastern countries and communities, the role of religion in fueling conflicts, the phenomenon of religious fundamentalism, the challenge and opportunity this presents to the United States, and the potential for religion to help advance Middle East peace. We will take advantage of the unprecedented upheavals roiling the Arab world since 2011 and use contemporary social media to contact people on the ground in the states we are studying to produce "updates" as to where religion and politics seem to be intersecting at this time.
79-308 Crime and Justice in American Film
Intermittent: 9 units
Films dealing with criminal activities and criminal justice have always been popular at the box office. From the gangsters of the Thirties and the film noir of the Fifties to the more recent vigilante avenger films of Liam Neeson, the film industry has profited from films about crime and its consequences. How those subjects are portrayed, however, tells us a great deal about larger trends in American history and society. Every imaginable type of criminal activity has been depicted on screen, as have the legal ramifications of those acts. But these films raise profound questions. What is the nature of crime? What makes a criminal? Are there circumstances in which crime is justified? How do socioeconomic conditions affect the consequences? How fair and impartial is our justice system? Perhaps most importantly, how do depictions of crime and justice in popular media influence our answers to these questions? This class will utilize a variety of films to discuss the ways in which popular media portrays the sources of crime, the nature of criminals, the court and prison systems, and particular kinds of criminal acts. Films to be screened may include such titles as The Ox-Bow Incident, Out of the Past, 12 Angry Men, Young Mr. Lincoln, Brute Force, The Equalizer, Jack Reacher and Minority Report. By thoroughly discussing these films and related readings we will be able to trace the various changes in attitude towards crime and justice in America over the last century.
79-309 The Chinese Revolution Through Film (1949-2000)
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is about both film and history. It is not a detailed history of film, but rather introduces some key issues of modern Chinese history and examines how that history is treated in film. Most of the films are made in China (including Taiwan and Hong Kong) but some are produced in the west. Topics that may be explored include the rise of the Communist Party, life in Maoist China, the Cultural Revolution, the Cold War/anti-imperialism, depictions of China's minority peoples, and the Reform-era under Mao's successors. Along with feature movies, we may view documentaries, propaganda films, TV shows and even music videos. In addition to providing a general history of the period, accompanying readings and assignments explore the social context and methodology of the films while developing critical skills in writing, analysis, and historical imagination.
79-310 Modern U. S. Business History: 1870 to the Present
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores the development of American business within its economic, political, and social context from the late nineteenth century to the present. Through the lens of "history of capitalism," readings and discussions will explore the interconnections of State and Market in the twentieth century United States that shaped how, why, and where business transactions occurred. Particular attention will be paid to the institutional, social, technological, environmental, labor, and cultural context in which American commerce developed, from the rise of the modern corporation in the late nineteenth century to the emergence of a true information economy in the twenty-first. Students will encounter primary sources, scholarly secondary readings, business case studies, and cultural artifacts as they explore how business functioned and changed over time in an American context.
79-311 PaleoKitchen: Food and Cooking in the Ancient World
Intermittent: 6 units
From home cooking to haute cuisine, people are passionate about food. But what did people eat in the ancient world? This class will center around the origins of the human diet, including human dietary adaptation to diverse ecological and technological situations; social, cultural, behavioral, and ecological factors which influenced diet in ancient societies; and the origins of cuisines around the world.
79-312 Archaeology of Death
Intermittent: 6 units
Ancient tombs, dusty crypts, frozen bodies, mummies, and cemeteries are the stuff of adventure and fiction. Archaeologists examine causes of death in the past, and study how ancient peoples dealt with the dead, to learn about life in the past. This course will explore mortuary patterns (the treatment of the dead) in order to reconstruct prehistoric social organization. We will also discuss archaeological approaches to paleopathology and patterns of mortality in past populations.
79-314 The Politics and Culture of Memory
Intermittent: 9 units
What is the relationship between an individual person and collective memories? How do societies "remember"? This course proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the relationship between memory and history. It explores various ways in which societies have mobilized their remembrances of the past for political and economic ends in the present; how and whose memory began to matter in a global 20th century; and how individual testimonies have highlighted the role of body, experience, trauma, and nostalgia for writing new, more inclusive and heterogenous histories. We will analyze how the politics of memory intermesh at a local and global scale, via a set of case studies that focus on: the use and erasure of the past in post-1945 Western and Central Europe; political violence, civil war, and reconciliation in post-1990 Guatemala; and the role of remembrance and testimony for claims of moral retribution in the aftermaths of colonialism (the Mau Mau in Kenya). The course is organized as a discussion-based seminar. The requirements include: mandatory attendance, one in-class presentation on a course topic, weekly discussion questions/comments submitted through CMU Box, and two essays based on the class readings (9-10 pages each, double spaced).
79-315 The Politics of Water: Global Controversies, Past and Present
Intermittent: 9 units
Water is necessary for all forms of life on Earth. With a global population of 7 billion humans, an estimated 1 billion suffer from inadequate drinking water; an estimated 2 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation facilities for human health, safety, and dignity. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to critical studies of water and development, using in-depth case studies that draw upon a variety of historical and social scientific perspectives. Examples of regional water projects addressed might include traditional tank irrigation in South India; international negotiations among states along the Nile River; historical changes in farming and landscape use in central China; and the U.S. Government in negotiation with native activists and fisheries experts on the Columbia River. In addition to this regional variety, readings will explore thematic approaches, for example, water and gender, water and armed conflict, and water and privatization interests. By the end of this course, students should be able to articulate their own answers to these questions: How have global organizations and participants characterized, enacted, and addressed problems of water supply and delivery for those who need it most? How do particular regions reflect global trends in water resource development, and how might these diverge from global trends? How have social and environmental studies in the literature of development come to understand the problem of water? All students should be prepared to read widely, and to discuss readings in a thoughtful way during each class meeting.
79-316 Photography, the First 100 Years, 1839-1939
Intermittent: 9 units
Photography was announced to the world almost simultaneously in 1839, first in France and then a few months later in England. Accurate "likenesses" of people were available to the masses, and soon reproducible images of faraway places were intriguing to all. This course will explore the earliest image-makers Daguerre and Fox Talbot, the Civil War photographs organized by Mathew Brady, the introduction in 1888 of the Kodak by George Eastman, the critically important social documentary photography of Jacob Riis and his successor, Lewis Hine, the Photo-Secession of Alfred Stieglitz, the Harlem Renaissance of James VanDerZee, the precisionist f64 photographers Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, and Edward Weston, and other important photographers who came before World War II. The class will be introduced to 19th century processes, such as the daguerreotype, tintype, and ambrotype, as well as albumen prints, cyanotypes, and more.
79-317 Art, Anthropology, and Empire
Intermittent: 9 units
This seminar will explore the anthropology and history of aesthetic objects, as they travel from places considered "primitive" or "exotic," to others deemed "civilized" or "Western." First, we will consider twentieth-century anthropological attempts to develop ways of appreciating and understanding objects from other cultures, and in the process to reconsider the meaning of such terms as "art" and "aesthetics." Then we will discuss several topics in the history of empire and the "exotic" arts, including: the conquest, colonization and appropriation of indigenous objects; the politics of display and the rise of museums and world fairs; the processes by which locally-produced art objects are transformed into commodities traded in international art markets; the effects of "exotic" art on such aesthetic movements as surrealism, etc.; and the appropriation of indigenous aesthetic styles by "Western" artists. Finally, we will consider attempts by formerly colonized populations to reclaim objects from museums, and to organize new museums, aesthetic styles, and forms of artistic production that challenge imperialism's persistent legacies.
79-318 Sustainable Social Change: History and Practice
Intermittent: 9 units
If you wanted to change the world, who would you ask for guidance? Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Mother Theresa, Rachel Carson, or Nelson Mandela? In this interdisciplinary course, we will examine the history of efforts to create sustainable social change. Through a series of targeted case studies, we will examine the successes and failures of notable leaders, past and present, who strove to address social problems nonviolently and to create lasting improvements in fields such as education, healthcare, and human rights. In keeping with the example of the people we will be studying, we will bring our questions and our findings out of the classroom through a variety of creative, student-driven experiments in sustainable social change.
79-319 India through Film
Intermittent: 6 units
Bollywood films attract hundreds of millions of viewers, not just in India but throughout the world. The name "Bollywood" makes it seem that the Indian film industry is a junior partner, merely an echo of Hollywood. But more films are made in Mumbai every year than in Los Angeles. And Mumbai is only one of many film hubs in India. The rich diversity of Indian cinema speaks to the equally rich history of India itself. This course uses Indian movies to examine several key themes in India's history. We will focus on the twentieth century and on questions of democracy, diversity, and development. This course includes a mandatory film screening on Wednesday evenings beginning at 6:30pm.
79-320 Women, Politics, and Protest
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the history of women's rights agitation in the United States from the early nineteenth-century to the present. It investigates both well-known struggles for women's equality—including the battles for women's voting rights, an Equal Rights Amendment, and access to birth control—and also explores the history of lesser-known struggles for economic and racial justice. Because women often differed about what the most important issues facing their sex were, this course explores not only the issues that have united women, but also those that have divided them.
79-322 Stalin and the Great Terror
Intermittent: 6 units
In the late 1930s, the Soviet state initiated a series of executions, purges, and arrests of its own citizens. More than 500,000 people were executed, and over one million sent to prison. This period is now known as "the Great Terror." The Terror began with the assassination of a prominent official. Yet it soon snowballed from a hunt for "terrorists" into a broad Terror against innocent people. How did a single assassination spark such a tragic campaign? How does anti-terrorist campaign snowball into an attack against ever widening numbers of ordinary citizens? Why did Stalin and the Soviet state secret police execute and arrest so many people? Taking us back to those dark days, this course examines what it was like to live in a culture of fear and denunciation, and how historians now seek to explain it.
79-323 Family, Gender, and Sexuality in European History, 500-1800
Intermittent: 9 units
The medieval and early modern periods witnessed a transformation in the cultural and social understandings of gender. During this period, the mutable sexual categories of the pre-modern world evolved into the definitions of masculinity and femininity recognizable today. This course examines these changes in the understanding of gender and the family in Europe in the medieval and early modern periods, drawing upon readings in gender history, marriage and the family, and the history of sexuality. We will explore the ideal of Christian marriage and family and examine how the "ideal" compared to the reality on such issues as marriage practices, family, gender roles, and sexuality. We will also explore the fashioning of female and masculine gender norms and the construction of the male and female sense of self over time. In the process, we will examine the larger historiographical issue of the use of gender as a tool of historical analysis.
79-325 U.S. Gay and Lesbian History
Intermittent: 6 units
US Gay and Lesbian History offers an overview of the changing context and circumstances of sexual minorities in American culture. From early constructions of moral opprobrium, criminal deviance or medical pathology, the LGBT community emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first century as a political constituency and a vital part of contemporary society. Students should be aware that this course will necessarily address issues of intimate relations and sexuality as well as broader historical issues.
79-326 German History through Film
Intermittent: 9 units
This course offers both a history of German cinema and a survey of 20th-century Germany as seen through German films. As film history, the course introduces students to movies spanning the silent era, Nazi films, the West German New Wave, socialist cinema, and post-unification movies. We will consider stylistic and technical trends as well as dramatic content. As a course in German history, the course sets major movies from each era against a backdrop of political, social, and cultural developments. We will also analyze the portrayal of World War II and the Third Reich in films made after 1945. We will view approximately 18 films, mostly in class but several outside of class. Readings will include works on the history of German film and a textbook on 20th-century German history. Writing will consist of three 5-page essays and one 8-10 page paper.
79-327 Modern Girlhood: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Intermittent: 6 units
Through primary documents, film and popular media, material culture, and interdisciplinary scholarship from the emerging field of girl(hood) studies, this course will examine historical conceptions of girlhood and accounts of girls' lives, to contemporary concerns and representations. In seeking to understand the meaning and experience of "modern" girlhood, our focus will primarily be on the 20th and 21st century American experiences, though at times we may look to perspectives from earlier periods and elsewhere in the world. Because there is no single experience or representation of girlhood, we will pay attention to the ways that girlhood is lived and constructed through the frameworks of race, class, culture, and geographic specificity.
79-328 Photographers and Photography Since World War II
Intermittent: 9 units
Invented in 1839, photography was a form of visual expression that immediately attracted a large public following. Starting around 1900, photography was practiced with two dominant strands. One of these firmly believed in the power of photographs to provide a window on the world, and was led by Lewis Hine, whose documentary photographs for the National Child Labor Committee helped to ameliorate living and working conditions for thousands of immigrant children. The other strand adhered to the philosophy of Alfred Stieglitz who adamantly affirmed that photographs were first and foremost reflections of the soul and were art objects, equal to painting, drawing and sculpture. These two schools of thought guided photographers throughout the twentieth century. This course explores in depth the tremendous range of photographic expression since World War II and examines in particular the contributions of significant image-makers such as Helen Levitt, W. Eugene Smith, Robert Frank, Diane Arbus, Garry Winogrand, Charles "Teenie" Harris, Cindy Sherman, Carrie Mae Weems, Nan Goldin, James Nachtwey, and many others. Classes include a slide lecture, student presentation, and video segments that introduce a focused selection of images by major photographers in an attempt to understand their intentions, styles, and influences. In Spring 2017, students will be expected to make one or more visits to photography exhibitions on view in Pittsburgh (locations to be announced at the first class in January.)
79-330 Medicine and Society
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the history of American medicine, public health, medical research and education, disease patterns, and patients' experiences of illness from the colonial period to the present. Students read the voices of historical actors, including physicians, patients, policy makers, and researchers. In analyzing these voices, students will learn what was at stake as Americans confronted diseases and struggled to explain and cure them.
79-331 Body Politics: Women and Health in America
Intermittent: 9 units
Women's bodies have been the sites of long-standing, and sometimes deadly, political battles. This course takes a topical approach to the history of American women's health in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in order to understand why women's bodies have been such heated sites of struggle. It covers topics such as the history of contraception, abortion, menstruation, sexuality, female anatomy, rape, domestic abuse, menopause, pregnancy, and childbirth. It explores how American culture has constructed these issues over time, while also examining women's organizing around them. This course is open to all students.
79-332 Medical Anthropology
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will explore the ways in which different cultures conceptualize the body and its relation to the physical, social, and supernatural environments. We will examine how illness and its causes are understood, investigating not only the beliefs and practices surrounding healing, but also the social position and training of the healers themselves. In order to understand the context of healing in cross-cultural perspective, we will problematize the boundaries between medicine and other arenas of social life: religion, politics, law, economics, etc. We will investigate issues of medical efficacy (what "works"?) by asking who or what is being healed in different kinds of medical practices, and we will consider the ways in which power and social control are exerted through medical discourses of various sorts. Finally, we will examine the history of medical anthropology from its "clinical" origins in international development, through anthropological critiques of clinical perspectives, to attempts to fuse clinical and critical approaches. Throughout the course, Western medical practice will be analyzed as one of many forms of ethnomedicine and ethnopsychology.
79-333 Sex, Gender & Anthropology
Intermittent: 9 units
This course introduces students to an anthropological perspective on the relationship between sex (biological) and gender (cultural). In order to understand the various debates we will examine the ideas of manhood, womanhood, third genders and sexuality in cross-cultural perspective. The focus will be on non-western cultures and will examine the construction of status, sexuality, and gender roles within the broader context of ritual, symbolism, marriage, kinship. Utilizing film, the popular media, and anthropological case studies this course will provide students with ways to understand and question how and why we express ourselves as "men," "women," and "other."
79-336 Oil & Water: Middle East Perspectives
Intermittent: 6 units
This course provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of global environmental history, while using regional case studies from the geographic region of what is now the Middle East. It highlights key issues in global history, seeking ways to examine Middle East history from a global historical perspective. Several themes in environmental history will receive special attention, including: agricultural systems; water resources; climate variability; the temporalities of natural resources; and narratives of 'development.' In addition, we will examine the historiography, or changing assumptions over time, of historians and other scholars who have studied the environmental resources of the Middle East.
79-338 History of Education in America
Intermittent: 9 units
Americans have long understood schools both as mechanisms for inculcating communal values and as instruments for social reform. Schools have been alternatively described as pillars of democratic society and as authoritarian institutions for managing deviance. Institutions of education—whether schools, colleges, or universities—figure prominently in discussions of inequality and discrimination, opportunity and meritocracy. This course provides an introductory historical survey of American educational ideas and institutions. From debates in the 17th and 18th centuries over the proper balance of religious and secular education to fierce battles today over the role of the federal government in enforcing No Child Left Behind, citizens have been politically mobilized through their concerns about education. By understanding the complicated history of American educational ideas and institutions, this course prepares students to engage critically with ongoing debates about vouchers, charter schools, national standards, and curriculum controversies.
79-339 Juvenile Delinquency and Film (1920 to "The Wire")
Intermittent: 9 units
How have American films portrayed juvenile delinquency and the juvenile justice system? What does filmmakers' portrayal of juvenile delinquency tell us about American culture and society? Do films vividly capture or badly distort the "realities" of crime and the operations of the justice system? This course uses feature films (to be viewed in advance of class) from the past 100+ years, as well as various sociological, psychological, and historical readings, to explore these issues. The course is run as a colloquium, with students playing central leadership roles in launching and guiding class discussions.
79-340 Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will track the development of an American institution, the juvenile court, in the context of changing patterns of juvenile delinquency from the early 19th century to the present. We will integrate historical, legal, sociological, and cultural perspectives in tracking the court's evolution, culminating in a careful look at how recent reform movements are playing out nationally. Readings will include a wide variety of secondary and primary historical sources from different time periods. We will also view and discuss several films (including Frederick Wiseman's 1973 classic, "Juvenile Court"). As opportunities develop, we may also hear from current court practitioners as guest lecturers. The course is run as a colloquium, with students playing central leadership roles in launching and guiding class discussions.
79-341 The Cold War in Documents and Film
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is based on use of historical documents and films to study problems that reshaped the world during and after the Cold War. We will examine how documentary and feature films depicted the most important events of the Cold War, such as the Korean War, the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban missile crisis, and others. In addition to films, sources will include documents, lectures and readings.
79-342 Introduction to Science and Technology Studies
Intermittent: 9 units
This course provides an introduction to Science and Technology Studies, a vibrant interdisciplinary field that examines the ways that science and technology interact with contemporary politics, culture, and society. Using theories and methods from history, philosophy, anthropology, and sociology, we will examine the following topics: the nature of scientific and technical knowledge; the formation of new fields of interdisciplinary expertise following the Second World War, specifically the rise and fall of the atomic scientists; the cybernetic approach to humans as "systems;" the emergence of risk societies; systems of classifications and categories and their impact on ideologies of race, sex, and gender; and possibility of objectivity; and the public understanding of science.
79-343 History of American Urban Life
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the development of urban America during the 19th and 20th centuries. It explores the evolution of urban structure; the development and impact of urban technologies (transportation, water/wastewater, energy and communications); ethnic and racial change and class conflict in the city; and political and policy issues. It discusses alterations in American city structure and form through the walking city, the networked city, and the development of the suburbs.
79-344 Public History: Learning Outside the Classroom
Intermittent: 6 units
Museums and other non-academic institutions reach large audiences with an array of history offerings, including exhibitions, films, publications, performances, oral history, workshops, lectures, events, research, reenactments, lectures, social media, webinars, online, radio and television programming. These educational tools are calculated to engage diverse audiences. Museums and historical societies are also actively collecting and preserving artifacts and archival materials. This course will examine best practices in Public History while looking at the inner workings of a large history museum's collection, exhibition, conservation, and education programs. Behind-the-scenes field trips and virtual explorations will especially interest students considering non-traditional careers in history education.
79-345 Roots of Rock & Roll
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is about open source, collaborative innovation and the impact of social and technological change on American music. We will spend the first 8 weeks on early "remix" music (slave songs, Anglo-Appalachian ballads, ragtime, and Depression era blues and country). After studying Bessie Smith, Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Hank Williams, and other early artists, we'll spend the last 7 weeks on revolutionaries like Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, and Janis Joplin. The format is informal lecture and discussion. Assignments include reading two books plus some articles, weekly music listening, short papers, and a final project.
79-346 American Political Humor
Intermittent: 9 units
This course takes a cultural approach to U.S. history since the Civil War, as seen by the nation's most astute and influential critics: its political humorists. Besides immortals like Mark Twain and contemporaries like Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, we will (re)discover the satirical yet hilarious voices of H.L. Mencken, Will Rogers, Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory, Richard Pryor, Nora Ephron, Dave Chapelle, and others through essays, recordings and films. At its sharpest edges, humor addresses issues of class, gender and race in American life, and provokes alternative thinking about mass culture, consumerism, and conformity. Assignments include short analytical essays and a final paper.
79-348 Abraham Lincoln
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores Lincoln's historical importance and his changing status as an American icon. We will not only learn about his life, we will address controversies about him (such as his attitudes and motives regarding slavery and racism). Readings will include a short biography, a book about his struggles with mental illness, a book about his friendship with Frederick Douglass, and Lincoln's own speeches and writings. His skills as a precise and succinct writer will be an ongoing focus; hence, assignments will emphasize the drafting, revising, and polishing of short essays, rather than the memorization of facts.
79-349 The Holocaust in Historical Perspective
Intermittent: 9 units
How should one approach the Holocaust? Multiple perspectives are possible, but in this course we will consider not only fundamental questions related to the Holocaust- Why the Jews? How did the process of destruction unfold? How could the perpetrators do what they did? Did the Jews go like "sheep to the slaughter," etc.- but we will look at the role of non-European actors, particularly the United States. How did the US respond to events in Europe? What was the role of President Franklin Roosevelt? Does America bear any guilt for what happened? We will try to meet with at least one Holocaust survivor and consider the Holocaust in an age of genocide and murderous fanaticism.
79-350 Early Christianity
Intermittent: 9 units
In this course we examine the origins of Christianity. Although we deal with biblical as well as other contemporary materials, the approach is not theological but historical. We want to understand how and why Christianity assumed the form that it did by examining its background in the Jewish community of Palestine, its place in the classical world, its relationship to other mystery religions of the time and certain variant forms (now known as Gnosticism) which it assumed prior to the crystallization of orthodoxy.
79-352 Christianity Divided: The Protestant and Catholic Reformation, 1450-1650
Intermittent: 9 units
At the dawn of the sixteenth century, western Europeans still shared a common religion and identity as members of the Roman Catholic Church. Within less than two decades, this uniformity began to crumble, and the very fabric of western culture was irrevocably altered. By 1550, Europe was splintered into various conflicting churches, confessions, sects, and factions, each with its own set of truths and its own plan for reforming the church and society at large. This period of rapid and unprecedented change in western history is commonly known as the Reformation. Though this term has traditionally referred to the birth of Protestantism, it also encompasses the simultaneous renewal and reform that occurred within Roman Catholicism. This course will survey the Reformations of the sixteenth century, both Protestant and Catholic, examining the causes of the Reformation, the dynamics of reform, and its significance for western society and culture. In the process, we will analyze such on-going problems as religious persecution and the accommodation of dissent, the relationship between religion and politics, and the interactions between ideology and political, social, and economic factors in the process of historical change.
79-353 Religious Identities and Religious Conflicts in 19th Century Europe
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores the place of religious identity and conflict in the history of European society from the French Revolution to World War I. We study the many ways that individuals constructed and used their religious identities to approach problems of public life. We examine continuities and changes in religious institutions as well as conflicts between churches and states. The course shows that, far from declining in importance during the processes of economic and political modernization, or becoming part of private life, religious beliefs and identities played an increasingly critical role in public life. We approach the topic through case studies, beginning with the religious conflicts and settlement between church and state during the French revolution, Evangelical Christian participation in the anti-slavery movement in Britain, Protestant-Catholic rivalries in Germany, the power of the papacy in Italy, and the Dreyfus case in France. Students will have reading assignments from both primary and secondary sources.
79-357 History of Black American Music
Intermittent: 6 units
Come and explore the rich musical heritage of Black America. This course will survey the music of Black America beginning with the African legacy and continuing through the music of the Twentieth Century. Class sessions will involve discussions, listening, viewing of films, and reports by students on topics of individual interest. Discussions will involve, historical, cultural and political perspective, as well as the music and composers themselves. Lecturing will be at a minimum. Innovative testing in quiz show format will be used. No prerequisites required. Open to upper level undergraduate students.
79-358 Nazi Ghettos: From Spatial Segregation to Killing Zones
Intermittent: 6 units
The Nazis demarcated more than 800 ghettos for interning the Jewish population of the territory they occupied during WWII. Some ghettos lasted for only a short period before they were destroyed; some lasted for years. Most were placed in towns or cities, but others were in rural areas. Some were designed as labor camps, and in a few, families and communities did manage to survive the war. Our course will focus on the East European ghettos, examining how they emerged, their function in the Nazi system, and their development from areas of spatial segregation to killing zones aimed at the annihilation of the people they contained. The course will examine Jewish life within the ghettos, social and cultural gaps, the Judenrat (Jewish councils appointed by the Nazis), and Jewish alternative leadership. We will also look at the uprising within the Warsaw ghetto, which resulted in its total destruction. By analyzing the development of the Ghetto as an urban disaster zone, we will seek to comprehend changes in the concept of ghettos by their inhabitants and by the oppressors. Using a case study approach, we will focus on the Warsaw Ghetto as a blockade within the surrounding city, the Lodz Ghetto as labor camp, the Mogilev and Zhmerinka ghettos (which remained relatively open under Romanian occupation but were part of a program of ethnic cleansing), and the ghettos in Vilnius and Bialystok, each of which raised horrific dilemmas of leadership among the imprisoned Jewish population.
79-359 Truth, Propaganda, and "Alternative Facts": A Historical Inquiry
Intermittent: 9 units
TBA
79-360 Conspiracies, Spies, and Assassins in Revolutionary Europe
Intermittent: 6 units
This course focuses on several conspiracies that dominated European thinking in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (roughly, 1790-1820.) Fueled by the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, many Europeans saw conspiracies behind every door and spies in every corner. Some of these conspiracies and spies were real, some less so. Using contemporary sources (including newspaper reports, letters, military dispatches and diaries), we will examine the social and political impact of these conspiracies, and the insurgents, spies and assassins who carried out their agendas.
79-361 Historical Diversities in Islamic Experience: West Africa, ca 800-1591
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is offered only at Carnegie Mellon's campus in Qatar. Islam, according to a writer, is "a religion for the entire world, East and West, Arab and non-Arab; and in the early seventh century, its land began with zone of Arab groupings of different hues belonging to different tribes who spoke different dialects". Many of these groups and others rallied to the call of Islam in the time of the Prophet in the early 600s and of his successors later on. "Diversity", an important sign of the Islamic world, has survived in later Muslim societies. This course will focus on this process of diversity within unity, as Clifford Geertz advocated in his important "Islam Observed". Islam emerged in Mecca and Medina in the seventh century C.E., spread in Christian- ruled North Africa and gold- producing Niger Valley of sub-Saharan West Africa. The Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula witnessed a religious change, mostly from the influence of the Byzantine Empire (Greek-Christian part of the ancient Roman ire), the Persian or Sasanian or Zoroastrian Empire. Multi-culturalism of some sort characterized this world, as many texts will show.
79-362 Law and Disorder in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
Intermittent: 9 units
The growth of legal institutions and their expanding use in enforcing "social discipline" marked an important and often controversial development in consolidating the political authority of the emerging states of the early modern era. This seminar will examine this process, looking at early modern European legal institutions and their role in defining and enforcing societal norms of conduct and belief. We will examine how the shifting definitions of "crime" within the period reflected prevailing societal attitudes and anxieties toward perceived acts of deviance and persons on the margins of society. In addition to the workings of governmental and legal institutions, we will also explore the ways in which early modern communities used informal social and economic sanctions to police communal standards, sometimes against the will of the authorities. Assigned readings will address such topics as the early modern European civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical court systems, investigation and punishment of crime, criminalization of social deviance (witches, vagrants, religious minorities and other outcasts), and the legal enforcement of sexual morality and gender roles.
79-363 The Rise of Modern Golf, 1860 to the Present
Intermittent: 6 units
Aristocratic pastime or the people's game? This course will examine the emergence of golf as both a professional and amateur sport and as a popular leisure activity between 1860 — when Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland hosted the first (British) Open — and the present day. Students will read and discuss historical, sociological, and literary texts, and view several documentary and feature films as well. Several tournament traditions will receive special attention, most especially The Masters, the U. S. Open, and the Ryder Cup for the men, and the Women's Open, the Solheim Cup, and the Curtis Cup for the women. If possible (no guarantees), we will arrange a class trip to visit Oakmont Country Club to learn in person about the club that has sponsored more U. S. Opens than any other club in history (most recently, in 2016).
79-369 Disasters in American History: Floods and Hurricanes
Intermittent: 6 units
In this course we will investigate the historical roles played by people in creating the conditions for disastrous floods and hurricanes in the United States, examining the material causes of "natural disasters" and analyzing how Americans have been affected differently according to race and class. By the end of the course, we will have examined some of America's largest flood and hurricane disasters in their historical contexts, and we will use this knowledge to think about disasters that Americans face now and in the future.
79-370 Disasters in American History (2):Epidemics & Fires
Intermittent: 6 units
This course investigates the historical roles played by people in creating the conditions for disastrous outbreaks of disease and fire in the United States, examining the material causes of "natural disasters" and analyzing how Americans have been affected differently according to race and class. By the end of the course, we will have examined some of America's largest epidemics and wildfires in their historical contexts, and we will use this knowledge to think about disasters that Americans face now and in the future.
79-371 African American Urban History
Intermittent: 9 units
Popular perceptions of poor and working class people occupy a prominent place in discussions of today's African American urban community. In the contemporary quest to build livable urban communities, popular, journalistic, public policy, and academic analysts often discuss the black poor and working class as "consumers" rather than "producers," as "takers" rather than "givers," and as "liabilities" instead of "assets" in the present moment of the nation's history. Effective public policies, movement strategies, educational programs, media campaigns, and sensitive philanthropic decisions require deeper and more thoughtful perspectives on the history of urban race and class relations in the past. Focusing on the development of African American urban history from its colonial beginnings through today's "Black Lives Matter Movement," this course will emphasize the many ways that people of African descent shaped American and African American urban life through their roles as workers, community-builders, and social justice activists. In addition to weekly classroom discussions of assigned readings, students will write a series of short essays (based upon a mix of secondary and primary sources) on selected topics/themes in the development of African American urban life, culture, and politics.
79-372 Cities, Technology, and the Environment
Intermittent: 6 units
This course will explore the interaction of cities, technology and the natural environment over time. In doing so it will consider major issues confronting cities today including landscape and site changes; water supply, wastewater disposal and flooding; solid waste disposal; transportation and suburbanization; energy changes; and the impact of deindustrialization. These themes will be approached through a combination of class discussions, lectures, and visiting speakers. Class participation is expected, and will comprise a portion of the grade. In addition to required texts, readings will be distributed on Blackboard.
79-374 American Environmental History: Critical Issues
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores critical issues in the history of the American environment during the last three centuries. Among the specific topics to be covered are changing attitudes toward nature; forms of rural and urban development and environmental effects; the impacts of technology and industrialism; the conservation and environmental movements; and environmental problems and prospects today.
79-376 Doing Transnational History
Intermittent: 9 units
This course has two broad learning objectives: introduce students to transnational and comparative perspectives on history; and provide students with experiences interpreting primary sources (i.e., historical documents). The specific subject matter will vary from one semester to the next depending on the course instructor's expertise and interests. Potential topics include imperialism and empire; capitalism and commodity flows; labor and human migrations; warfare and genocide; medicine and health; or technology and environment. This course, open to all students, partially fulfills the Theoretical and Topical Core course requirement for Global Studies majors.
79-377 Food, Culture, and Power: A History of Eating
Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores food production and consumption in the modern world. This semester, we will focus on ongoing debates over how to feed a world of seven billion people on a planet undergoing major climate change. We will explore the historical roots of the problem of "feeding the world" and consider the overlapping yet competing ideas of food security and food sovereignty. What are the cultural, economic, environmental and political contexts that create opportunities and constraints for changing food systems? After exploring this big question through readings and group discussions, the second half of the semester will be devoted to individual research projects focused on the historical and cultural dimensions of food provisioning.
79-378 Islam and the Integration of Society
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is ONLY offered at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. This is an introduction through the prism of history, religion, sociology and political science, to the general history of Islam since its rise in 7th-century Arabia as well as to the experiences of various Muslim groups in the world. Based on a paradigm borrowed from sociology and politics, it stresses the process of assembling together disparate components to produce a relatively unified entity at the end, thanks to the effects of strong bonds among the members of the community and thanks to the role of divinely inspired —charismatic— leadership. The course will study this multi-faceted process in different geographical and temporal context, thereby teaching students how to think globally and methodically.
79-380 Ethnographic Methods
Intermittent: 9 units
In this class, students will become familiar with the history, the use, and the problems attached to "ethnographic methods." Drawing on diverse anthropological writings, students learn to assess various methods, including observation, participation, interviewing, conversing, mapping, and documenting in visual media in order to create a "thick description" or ethnography. In addition to reading carefully and critically discussing assigned materials, the primary work in the class involves a fieldwork project: each student is expected to develop a project that can be completed in one semester, that involves an application of one or more strategy of inquiry, and that can be written up in a final, interpretive and descriptive paper or presented in visual form, accompanied by a written commentary. There are no exams in the course.
79-381 Energy and Empire: How Fossil Fuels Changed the World
Intermittent: 9 units
Few things have changed the world as much as petroleum: cars, airplanes, fertilizers, plastics are just some of the technologies derived from oil. Moreover, the wealth and power associated with "black gold" has shaped geopolitics in the twentieth century, giving rise to so-called "petro-states." For the first five weeks, we will trace the evolution and expansion of "petrocultures" around the world. The remainder of the course will be organized around individual student research projects. The major learning objective of this course is to give students experience writing an original research paper. Students will be expected to define a research question, assemble a bibliography of sources, write and revise an analytical paper, and do an oral presentation. This course, open to all students, partially fulfills the Theoretical and Topical Core course requirement for Global Studies majors.
79-385 The Making of the African Diaspora
Intermittent: 9 units
The trans-Atlantic slave trade dispersed Africans in the New World and the Old, creating the African Diaspora. Generations of scholars have disputed whether descendants of enslaved Africans could have retained any of their African culture and/ or fully assimilated into New World societies. This course will combine a chronological, geographical, and a thematic approach to the creation of new Africa-inspired cultures in both Africa and the African Diaspora. It will explore societies in the Caribbean, the US South, Latin America, and Africa and address themes, such as Africanisms, African survivals, African retentions, Creole languages, and religion.
79-386 Entrepreneurs in Africa, Past, Present and Future
Intermittent: 9 units
Fifty years after Ghana, the first sub-Saharan African nation, gained its independence from colonial rule, African economies continue to rest on a fragile foundation. Entrepreneurs must play an important role in developing the African continent, because both African governments and foreign aid have overall failed. In the face of these myriad of internal and external constraints on economic development, the history of entrepreneurship and future potential for entrepreneurship is often overlooked. This course will show that sub-Saharan Africa is-and has been for centuries-a thriving place of business, despite the obstacles of war, political and economic instability, disease, and famine. It will also focus on the challenges, such as local, regional, and national integration, access to credit and capital accumulation, and debt burden that African economies faced in the past, present, and future. Lastly, it will focus on the strategies that entrepreneurs in Africa-local and foreign-have developed to circumnavigate these challenges-and the opportunities that they have created in spite of them. By taking a historical approach to the subjects of entrepreneurship, innovation, and technology in Africa, this course will define African entrepreneurship in a way that is rooted in Africans' historical experiences and use this definition to put Africa's current and future roles in the global economy into historical perspective.
79-389 Stalin and Stalinism
Intermittent: 9 units
Joseph Stalin has been vilified and praised, damned and worshipped. He left behind a mixed and complex legacy. He created an industrialized modern economy in the Soviet Union and won a great and painful victory over the Nazis. At the same time, he built a police state, sent millions to labor camps, and destroyed the possibilities for socialist democracy. When he died, thousands of Soviet citizens wept at his funeral. This course will combine elements of biography and social history to examine Stalin, the man, and Stalinism, the phenomenon. Using history and film, we will explore one of the most complicated and influential dictatorships of the 20th century.
79-392 History of Modern Warfare
Intermittent: 9 units
This course examines the role of warfare in western society and history during the period of emergence and expansion of western nation states. Central themes include the relationship of war to the political economy of the state, to military technology, and to technological changes in manufacturing. These themes are investigated in the framework of western imperial expansion and the resulting conflicts between competing European empires and the non-European societies in their path. After an introduction to warfare from the classical period through the emergence of modern armies in the 17th century, the course focuses on major global conflicts from the Seven Years War though World War Two. Topics include the gradual evolution of European thinking away from classical ideas about warfare and changing concepts of strategy, tactics, and generalship as a result of industrialization and the emergence of global economic empires.
79-395 The Arts in Pittsburgh
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will examine the arts in Pittsburgh, both historically and in the present. We will focus especially on art exhibits and musical events scheduled by the city's museums and concert halls during the semester. The "curriculum" will derive from the artistic presentations themselves, which will provide a springboard for reading assignments, seminar discussions, and research papers in the history of music and art. We will also examine the historical development of cultural institutions in Pittsburgh. The History Department will pay for students' admission to all museums and studios. However, students will be charged a supplemental fee of a minimum of $275 to help subsidize the considerable expense of purchasing tickets for concerts and performances by the Pittsburgh Symphony, Pittsburgh Opera, Chamber Music Society, and Renaissance and Baroque Society. Attendance at all art exhibits and musical events is required. Prerequisite: Availability to attend art exhibits on several Fridays and Saturdays, and to attend musical events on several Thursday, Friday and Saturday evenings.
79-396 Music and Society in 19th and 20th Century Europe and the U.S.
Intermittent: 9 units
This course will explore the interrelations between society and classical and popular music in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Europe and the United States. We will examine the importance of different musical forms in the life of society and how music contributed to the making of political consciousness, especially in the twentieth century. In addition to reading assignments, seminar discussions, and research papers in the history of music, students will be taken to the performances of the Pittsburgh Symphony, Pittsburgh Opera, and Chamber Music Society. A supplemental fee of a minimum of $275 will be charged to subsidize part of the considerable expense of purchasing tickets for concerts and performances.Prerequisite: Availability to attend musical events on several Friday and Saturday evenings.
79-398 Documenting the 1967 Arab-Israeli War
Intermittent: 9 units
This course considers how historians practice their craft in interpreting great events with the Arab-Israeli war of 1967 serving as the case study. Students read recent scholarly accounts of the war and then check them against one another as well as a variety of primary source materials such as memoirs, documents, speeches, newspapers, maps, eye-witness reports and UN resolutions. We will constantly be asking if the sources support the secondary accounts or if there are other interpretations that might lead to different conclusions. We will be examining the texts for tangents left unexplored and possibly worthy of further research. Students should expect a significant reading load, frequent short assignments and a major final research paper on a 1967 War-inspired topic.
79-400 Advanced Seminar in Global Studies
Spring
This research seminar is the capstone course for Global Studies majors. The course is designed to give you a chance to define and carry out a research project of personal interest. The first few weeks of the course will be devoted to developing a research topic and locating sources. We will then work on how to interpret and synthesize sources into a coherent and compelling thesis before you begin drafting your paper. Your research may be based on in-depth reading of a body of scholarly work, field notes from ethnographic observations, archival research, analysis of literary or visual media, or some combination of these sources. Incorporation of some non-English language sources is strongly encouraged where possible. Independent work, self-initiative, participation in discussion, and peer evaluations are required. There are several interim deadlines that will be strictly enforced in order to ensure successful completion of the course. Prerequisites: 79-275 and Theoretical and Topical Core must be complete or concurrently enrolled. Corequisite: 79-275.
79-411 Research on Great Islamic Issues According to the Early Sources
Intermittent: 9 units
This course is ONLY offered at Carnegie Mellon in Qatar. The term Islam suggests centuries of history that embody a creed and a civilization with unity and diversity in its rituals and politics. The Islamic world involves "great questions" that differentiate Muslims from one another. Examples include the Shia-Sunni schism or split that has divided Islamdom since the first decades after the death of the Prophet founder in 632; the tensions between unity and sectarianism that relentlessly explode in Muslim countries; the persisting questions of equality and inequality that pertain to gender and race. The works of such historians as Muhammad ibn Ishaq of Medina (704-769), who authored an early biography (Sirat Rasul Allah, Life of the Messenger of Allah), Muhammad ibn Saad of Basra (764-845), who was inspired by Ibn Ishaq, the historian Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Tabari (839-923), who authored the multi-volume Tarikh al-rasul wa al muluk (History of the Prophets and Kings),and the 14th-century eminent thinker, Abu Zayd Muhammad Ibn Khaldun, who wrote the Muqaddimah, an Introduction to History, and numerous contemporary scholars help to elucidate part of the problems. Exploring these texts improves the students' grasp of history. This course will be taught as a proseminar that aims at introducing the literature in the English translation and at raising questions. It will broaden deepen the appreciation of history by undergraduate students. As a "specialized" offering reserved for students minoring in history or having successfully completed two courses in history or having the authorization of the instructor.
79-420 Historical Research Seminar
Fall: 12 units
The purpose of this research seminar is to help you conceptualize, design, organize, and execute a substantial research project that embodies and extends the knowledge and skill set you have been developing as a History major at Carnegie Mellon. The identification and collection of relevant primary source data, and the positioning of your project within a relevant historiography, are integral parts of this intellectual task. Along the way, we will strive to hone your written and oral presentation skills, deepen your command of research methodologies and strategies, and sharpen your abilities as a constructive critic of others' research. The seminar seeks to develop these intellectual skills through a combination of in-class, student-led discussions of everyone's research-in-progress, and regular individual consultations with the instructor.
Prerequisite: 79-200 Min. grade C
79-449 EHPP Project Course
Fall: 12 units
The Ethics, History and Public Policy Project Course is required for the Ethics, History and Public Policy major and is taken in the fall semester of the senior year. In this capstone course, Ethics, History and Public Policy majors carry out a collaborative research project that examines a compelling current policy issue that can be illuminated with historical research and philosophical and policy analysis. The students develop an original research report based on both archival and contemporary policy analysis and they present their results to a client organization in the community.
79-491 Independent Study
Intermittent
An Independent Study is meant for students with a special interest in an area not covered by a formal history course. Readings and other work are negotiated between the student and an individual faculty member.
79-503 Senior Thesis I
Fall: 9 units
Seniors may write a thesis with permission of the Undergraduate Advisor and a designated faculty member who will supervise its completion.
79-504 Senior Thesis II
Spring: 9 units
Seniors may continue their thesis project over a second semester with the permission of the Undergraduate Advisor and the designated faculty member
79-506 Global Studies Internship
Fall and Spring
This course provides Global Studies majors with a chance to explore global connections in Pittsburgh. Majors, working in close consultation with the Global Studies director and advisor, will arrange an internship with a non-governmental organization (usually in Pittsburgh) whose mission has a global reach. This could include an organization that supports projects in other countries, works with immigrants in the Pittsburgh area, or participates in international policy making/governance. We strongly encourage students to seek out opportunities that require use of a second language. Students will be required to maintain a weekly journal; write a short critical reflection on how the internship connects to academic work; and share their experience with other Global Studies majors. Global Studies advisor and director will assist students with matching their interests to local organizations and identifying an on-site supervisor available to collaborate in the ongoing and final evaluation of the student's work. Prerequisite: Students must be Global Studies majors and obtain permission for the proposed internship from the Global Studies advisor.